Granby Elementary School Improving Standards of Learning Scores

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Overview

The purpose of this applied research study is to provide recommendations to the administrators and teachers with possible solutions to the problem of low Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) scores of minority students at Granby Elementary School. The present section provides background information about the organization, introduces the problem, discusses its significance, and declares the purpose of the study. This section also states the central research question and lists the key terms utilized throughout the study.

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Organization Profile

Granby Elementary School, a public educational entity located in Norfolk, VA, was the educational site for this study. The mission of Granby Elementary School is to “ensure that all families and students are engaged in purposeful learning, students are using metacognition and comprehension strategies across all curriculum areas to ensure life-long learning” (Granby Elementary School, n.d., para. 1). The school currently has 581 students, among which 59.2% are African American, 22.7% are white, and 8.1% are Hispanic (Virginia Department of Education [VDoE], 2020a). Almost 97% of the students qualify for free or discounted lunch, which demonstrates that the majority of students are from financially disadvantaged families (VDoE, 2020a). In terms of students’ success and quality of education provided, School Digger (2021) rates the school 996 among 1,105 elementary schools in Virginia. The student-to-teacher ratio has dropped for three consecutive years since 2017, reaching 13.5 in 2020 (VDoE, 2020). In 2019, the school’s SOL scores in both mathematics and English reading were below the county’s and the state’s averages (VDoE, 2020).

Introduction to the Problem

The problem is that African American Students at Granby Elementary have historically demonstrated lower academic achievement as measured in SOL scores. The education gap is a considerable issue in the United States that came to the attention of educators and policymakers more than half a century ago (King, 2017). Gilar et al. (2019) describe academic achievement as the extent to which a student achieved short-term or long-term educational goals. Academic achievement is usually quantified using test scores of grade point averages (GPAs) depending on the situation. The achievement gap is dangerous not only for African Americans but also for the wellbeing of the entire nation, as it spreads inequality (King, 2017).

The problem of the achievement gap is present in Virginia, which was confirmed by Standards of Learning (SOL) scores. According to the Virginia Department of Education (VDoE, 2020b), African Americans have lower average scores on achievement tests. In particular, in Virginia, the average SOL scores of Whites were 86 in reading, 85 in writing, 91 in history and social sciences, 86 in mathematics, and 89 in science (VDoE, 2020b). At the same time, African Americans scored 67 in reading, 65 in writing, 75 in history and social sciences, 68 in mathematics, and 69 in science (VDoE, 2020b). The average scores of African Americans in all subject areas were lower by 20 points. In Granby Elementary, the SOL score also demonstrated a significant gap in the academic achievement of minority students and their White counterparts. In 2019, the SOL reading score of Whites was 79, while African Americans’ proficiency level was 56, and Hispanics’ proficiency level was 67 (VDoE, 2020a). Similarly, in mathematics, the Whites’ level of proficiency was 74 against 60 Hispanics and 61 of Blacks (VDoE, 2020a). Thus, the problem of academic underachievement is evident among the minority students of Granby Elementary.

Significance of the Problem

The problem of low SOL scores of minority students in Granby Elementary is crucial. As mentioned previously, the majority of students (77.3%) in Granby Elementary belong to an ethnic minority. Thus, the underachievement of minority students in the school has a significant impact on the average achievement of students in the school. According to Lanese (2018), teachers and schools are evaluated based on the results of standardized test scores, such as SOL. Higher scores in standardized testing are associate with increased funding from the government (Lanese, 2018). Increased funding can result in schools hiring new teachers and teacher assistants, which can further increase the achievement of students. According to Hemelt et al. (2021), teacher assistants have a positive influence on math and reading test scores in elementary schools. Thus, improved results of minority students’ scores on SOL tests can increase the prestige of the school and improve the level of workplace satisfaction of teachers. As a result, the retention of teachers can be improved. Additionally, improved test results can increase self-efficacy of minority students, which will promote positive relationships within classrooms.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to provide recommendations for solving the problem of low SOL scores in Granby Elementary. The research will utilize a multimethod approach using both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, five semi-structured interviews will be conducted with teachers and administrators who have knowledge relevant to the topic. Second, a Likert scale survey will be developed to understand how can the problem of low standardized test scores among minority students in Granby Elementary be solved based on the perceptions of the stakeholders. A sample of teachers will be asked to complete the survey in Google Forms. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and multiple regression will be used to assess the appropriateness and feasibility of the provided recommendations based on teachers’ opinions. Third, two focus groups will be created. The results of the analysis will be evaluated in light of the findings of previous research.

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Central Research Question

How can the problem of low SOL scores of minority students in Granby Elementary School in Virginia be solved?

Definitions

  1. Academic achievement – “the communicative (oral, reading, writing), mathematical, science, social science, and thinking skills and competencies that enable a student to succeed in school and society” (Lindholm-Leary & Borsato, 2006, p. 176).
  2. Achievement gap – “academic performance difference between Whites and minorities” (Carpenter, Ramirez, & Severn, 2006, p. 116).
  3. Assessment – can refer to the process faculty use to grade student course assignments, to standardized testing imposed on institutions as part of increased pressure for external accountability, or to any activity designed to collect information on the success of a program, course, or University curriculum (Lteef, 2019, p. 2).
  4. High-stake testing – “tests that carry serious consequences for students or educators” (Marchant, 2004, p. 2).
  5. Intervention – a set of steps a teacher takes to help a child improve in their area of need by removing educational barriers (Lynch, 2019, para. 2).
  6. Minority students – “those who do not belong to a region’s or nation’s majority racial or ethnic group — may be subject to discrimination, whether sanctioned or passive, that can affect their educational achievement” (RAND, n.d., para. 1).
  7. Standardized testing – test that require to answer the questions from a pool of questions and graded in a consistent manner to inform the teachers about the level of achievement of a student (Herman & Golan, 1993).

Procedures

Overview

The purpose of this applied research study is to provide recommendations to the administrators and teachers with possible solutions to the problem of low Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) scores of minority students at Granby Elementary School. The school under analysis is a small-scale educational entity in Norfolk Country, VA, with almost 60% of students being African American. The present section provides a detailed description of procedures that were used to collect data for further analysis. In particular, the section discusses interview procedures, interview questions, focus group procedures, focus group questions, survey procedures, and survey questions.

Interview Procedures

The first data collection method utilized for the present study was conducting semi-structured interviews with school authorities to collect insights about how the problem of low SOL scores can be solved. The interview questions helped the researchers to learn about the perceptions of stakeholders about the reasons for low SOL scores among minority students and strategies that can be employed to improve these scores. A total of five interviews were conducted to understand the views on the issue from different angles. The participants included teachers from every grade level (grades 1-4) and the school’s principal. Purposeful sampling was used to select the information-rich sources participants, which is crucial for mixed-method research (Palinkas et al., 2015). The participants were selected according to their experience of working with minority students, the number of years in Granby elementary, and the level of trust among the faculty.

Every interview followed the standard protocol of semi-structured interviews described by Creswell (2012). All the interviews were conducted on the school campus after the classes for approximately an hour. All the participants were asked ten interview questions consecutively, and the provided answers were recorded and carefully transcribed for further analysis. Additional clarification questions were asked in the course of the interviews when they were needed. Thematic analysis was performed after the data was collected to identify valuable ideas. Interview transcript responses were examined for codes based on related content. Each code was evaluated for frequency across the interview sessions. These codes were then categorized into main themes. A total of ten interview questions were asked to answer the research question. All the questions were created with reference to current literature.

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Interview Questions

How do you think standardized test scores are helpful for measuring the achievements of Elementary School students?

The question was used to understand the attitude of teachers towards standardized tests as a measure of achievement. Williams (2005) notes that many teachers believe that standardized tests do not measure academic achievement accurately, as tests promote studying for tests rather than studying for knowledge. The answer to this question helped to understand the level of bias towards standardized testing.

Why are SOL test results important for Grandy Elementary and its students?

This question aimed at helping the interviewees to think about the importance of SOL test results for the school in general and for every individual student. This question was a utility question that helped to participants to take the research and the problem seriously.

Why do you think the achievement gap between minority students and their White counterparts exists in Granby Elementary?

The question helps to identify the reasons for the existence of the achievement gap in Granby Elementary. Numerous studies aimed at assessing the reasons for the gap in the academic achievements of students. A recent article by Bowman et al. (2018) addressed the problem systematically by assessing several factors simultaneously. The results of the research revealed that developmental differences, poverty, racism, curriculum, cultural differences, and insufficient teacher training lead to the appearance of the achievement gap (Bowman et al., 2018). Additionally, frontiers in current curriculum development acknowledge that the current curriculum is predominantly White, which implies that history and literature are often overlooked (King, 2017; Johnson, 2018). All these reasons are expected to be named by the interviewees. However, they may mention other reasons for the achievement gap, which will provide additional value for the research. Even if interviewees do not provide additional ideas, the insights will be crucial, as they will help to establish consistency with the current body of knowledge.

Which of the issues that created the achievement gap can be addressed by the faculty and administration of Granby Elementary?

This question helps to narrow down the list of the problems so that they can be addressed in the future. For instance, socioeconomic status often has a negative impact on student’s academic achievement (Bowman, 2018). However, this problem can hardly be addressed by the faculty and administration of Granby Elementary.

How do you think curriculum affects test scores of minority students?

This question starts a series of questions that help to focus on specific factors that contribute to low SOL test scores in Granby elementary. Dahir (2019) reported that African American students could not relate to the stories told in the history classes and writing studied during literature lessons. This leads to a loss of interest in studies, which eventually leads to decreased academic performance (Dahir, 2019). The question is designed to gather the opinions of the participants concerning the influence of curriculum on the achievement gap between Whites and minority students.

How do you think psychological factors affect SOL scores in Granby Elementary?

This question continues to the series of questions that help to focus on the factor that can be addressed using the school’s resources to improve the SOL test scores of minority students. Dixson et al. (2017) found that the effect of psychological factors, such as grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation, had no significant effect on the academic achievement of students, which was inconsistent with previous research. This question helps to clarify the matter.

How do you think discipline affects SOL scores in Granby Elementary?

Pearman et al. (2019) found that there was a significant correlation between the achievement gap and the discipline gap among minority students. The question helps to understand if discipline is a significant factor that affects SOL scores of minority students in Granby Elementary.

What strategies do you think are most effective for improving minority students’ SOL scores in Granby Elementary?

This question helps to gather general information about the possible strategies that can be used for solving the problem of low test scores of minority students un Granby Elementary.

How do you think the school can improve minority students’ SOL scores through the instructional improvement?

The question helps to focus more on the instructional practices that can be changed to improve the test scores of minority students. Bowman (2018) states that aside from improving the curriculum, instruction perfection is crucial for closing the achievement gap between minority students and their White counterparts.

How do you think the school can improve minority students’ SOL scores through collective efficacy?

This question is aimed to look closely at the problem of low collective efficacy in Granby Elementary and find strategies to address it to improve the SOL test results of minority students. Goddard et al. (2017) concluded that the promotion of collective efficacy among teachers could help to close the achievement gap; however, no specific strategies were offered to improve collective efficacy.

Focus Groups Procedures

The second approach to data collection is discussions in focus groups about strategies that may improve SOL test scores among Granby Elementary students. One focus group with eight participants were conducted. The focus group were offered to discuss the strategies in general and then concentrate the attention level on different grade levels. Purposeful sampling was used to include the most experienced teachers of specific grades to corresponding focus groups. The focus group discussion was conducted on the school campus with an allocated time of 90 minutes. The discussion was recorded and transcribed right after the it is over. Everyone was informed about the ongoing recording, and informed consent was acquired. The transcript was examined for codes. All the codes were evaluated in terms of frequency and arranged into themes.

Before the start of the focus group session, all the participants were informed about the purpose of the focus group, and a list of questions were printed out for everyone so the participants have an idea of the spectrum of questions the focus group needed to discuss. The group moderator was in charge of generating as many ideas as possible and helping the participants move from one question to another. The questions for the focus groups are provided in the following section. All the questions were grounded in current literature.

Focus Group Questions

What is the attitude of teachers in Granby Elementary towards standardized tests?

The question aimed at understanding if the teachers believed that standardized testing was a proper measure of achievement of students. Teachers may believe that improving student achievement and improving stargazed test scores are weakly correlated since people are forced to study for tests instead of learning material (Williams, 2005). Thus, the question aimed at establishing a baseline for further discussion.

How do you think ethnicity affects the academic achievements of students in Granby Elementary? Why?

The question aims at determining how the focus group feels about ethnicity affecting academic achievement. Some teacher may believe that its other factors, like socioeconomic status, is the reason minority students underperform in schools (Liu et al., 2020). Thus, the group participants may believe that it would be improper to discuss strategies for improving the SOL scores of minority students.

Why do test results of minority students need to be improved?

The question returns the participants to the benefits of improving test scores for different stakeholders. The group moderator will help the participants to touch upon benefits for students, teachers, school administration, and the community. The replies to the questions are expected to motivate the participants to be more involved in the following discussions.

What do you think are the major reasons for the achievement gap between minority students and their White counterparts in Granby Elementary?

Bowman et al. (2018) covered at least four major factors that affect the academic achievement of minority students, including the curriculum, cultural differences, poverty, and racism. The group discussion can reveal other factors that may affect the academic achievement of minority students.

Which of the listed factors have the most significant effect on every grade level students in Granby Elementary?

This question aims at narrowing down the problem to a specific grade level (each focus group will discuss a different grade level). The preferred result for the discussion of this question is the creation of a list of reasons that have the most effect on every grade level.

What are the strategies for improving the SOL test scores among minority students in Granby Elementary?

Oakes et al. (2017) claim that some of the most effective strategies for improving academic achievement among elementary school students are the promotion of integrated student supports expanded learning time and opportunities, family and community engagement, and collaboration and effective leadership practices. The groups will be offered to discuss these four strategies in more detail.

Which of the strategies discussed today are most appropriate for improving SOL test scores of students from every grade level in Granby Elementary?

This question aims at helping the participants to focus on the specific grade levels and single out the most appropriate methods for addressing the problem of low academic achievement of minority students in specific grades in Granby Elementary.

How can instructions be improved in the all the grade levels of Granby elementary to improve minority students’ test scores?

This question further narrows down the topic to understand how the problem can be addressed using instructions. Shamir et al. (2019) claim that modifying instruction can improve the academic achievements of students. However, different schools may have different problems, which means that there are no universal decisions. This question helped to gain school and grade-specific recommendations from the professionals.

How can the curriculum be modified on every grade level to improve the test results of minority students?

The question helps to focus on the changes in the curriculum that can be implemented in Granby Elementary. King (2017) states that curriculum may be the central issue for minority students as they cannot relate to the stories they are reading. However, there are limited changes to the curriculum a school can make. Therefore, the focus group may help to single out the alternatives.

What can the school do to increase parental involvement of minority students?

Oakes et al. (2017) provide significant evidence that parental involvement has a positive impact on students’ achievement. This question is designed to help to find strategies that can increase parental involvement, which can potentially improve SOL test scores of minority students in Granby Elementary.

Survey Procedures

The final approach to data collection will be a survey that will include a total of 14 questions, including four demographic questions and ten content questions. The survey was conducted using Survey Monkey, as the service provides basic statistical analysis and does not require much experience to be used. A total of 25 teachers from Granby Elementary will be invited to complete the survey. The invitations will be sent via email with a link to the survey questions. The emails will also include a brief description of the study, including its purpose and methods. The participants will also be offered to sign an online form of consent. Simple random sampling will be used because it helps to decrease the level of bias during the participant selection procedures, as everyone in the population receives an equal chance to participate (Etikan & Bala, 2017).

Survey Questions

Demographic Questions

  1. What category best describes you in terms of age?
      1. 21-29
      2. 30-39
      3. 40-49
      4. 50-59
      5. 60 and above
  1. What is your biological gender?
      1. Male
      2. Female
  1. What is your race?
      1. White
      2. African American
      3. Latino
      4. Asian
      5. Other
  1. What is your highest degree?
      1. Bachelor’s Degree
      2. Master’s Degree
      3. Specialist degree
      4. Ph.D./M.D./Other professional degree
      5. Other

Content Questions

  1. In general, how do you think your students in Granby Elementary perform in terms of academic achievement?
1 2 3 4 5
Significantly below average Below average Average Above average Significantly above average

This question is designed to establish a baseline for further inferential analysis. In particular, it will help to compare the perceived academic achievement of all students to the perceived academic achievement of minority students.

  1. How do you think minority students in Granby Elementary perform in terms of academic achievement?
1 2 3 4 5
Significantly below average Below average Average Above average Significantly above average

This question is closely connected to the previous question, as it helps to compare the overall perceived performance of students in Granby Elementary to the perceived academic performance of minority students. Ratcliff et al. (2017) stated that teachers awareness about the existing problem may modify the academic achievement of students.

  1. Please, state how much you agree with the following statement, “I believe that academic underachievement of minority students in Granby Elementary is a significant problem that should be addressed in the nearest future.”
1 2 3 4 5
Disagree More disagree than agree Not sure More agree than disagree Agree

This question is designed to understand the attitude of teachers towards the problem of low academic achievements of Granby Elementary students. Ratcliff et al. (2017) state that attitudes and behaviors of teachers have a significant impact on the academic achievement of students.

  1. Please, state how much you agree with the following statement, “I believe that instruction practices in Granby elementary are of the highest quality.”
1 2 3 4 5
Disagree More disagree than agree Not sure More agree than disagree Agree

This question helps to examine the level of instructional practices in Granby Elementary. According to Bowman et al. (2018), instructions are the key to improving the academic performance of minority students.

  1. What is the effect of curriculum on the academic achievement of minority students in Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
Negative More negative than positive Neither negative nor positive More positive than negative Positive

This question is designed to measure the effect of curriculum on the academic achievement of minority students. King (2017) claims that an inadequate curriculum is a key to the low academic performance of minority students.

  1. What is the effect of parental involvement on the academic achievement of minority students in Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
Negative More negative than positive Neither negative nor positive More positive than negative Positive

This question aims at measuring the perceived benefits of parental involvement in the education of minority students. Oakes et al. (2017) claim that parental involvement can improve the academic achievement of students.

  1. In general, how involved are parents in the academic life of their children in Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
Not involved Hardly involved Not sure Involved Highly involved

This question is designed to measure the parental involvement of all students in Granby elementary and then compare it to the parental involvement of minority students.

  1. How involved are parents of minority students in the academic life of their children in Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
Negative More negative than positive Neither negative nor positive More positive than negative Positive

This question measures parental involvement of minority students in the school to compare it to the overall involvement of students.

  1. Do you like working in Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
No More no than yes Not sure More yes than no Yes

This question is designed to measure the level of teacher satisfaction, which is believed to be an important predictor of the level of instruction and academic achievement (Oakes et al., 2017).

  1. Racism is a significant problem at Granby Elementary?
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

This question is meant to measure the level of racism in the school. Bowman et al. (2018) claim that racism is one of the central reasons for the underachievement of minority students.

References

Bowman, B. T., Comer, J. P., & Johns, D. J. (2018). Addressing the African American achievement gap: Three leading educators issue a call to action. YC Young Children, 73(2), 14-23.

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Dahir, M. (2019). Between cultural literacy and cultural relevance: A culturally pragmatic approach to reducing the black-white achievement gap. Handbook of Theory and Research in Cultural Studies and Education, 1-19.

Dixson, D. D., Roberson, C. C., & Worrell, F. C. (2017). Psychosocial keys to African American achievement? Examining the relationship between achievement and psychosocial variables in high achieving African Americans. Journal of Advanced Academics, 28(2), 120-140. Web.

Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149.

Gilar, R., Veas, A., Miñano, P., & Castejón, J. L. (2019). Differences in personal, familial, social, and school factors between underachieving and non-underachieving gifted secondary students. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2367-2377. Web.

Granby Elementary School. (n.d.). School history. Web.

Goddard, R. D., Skrla, L., & Salloum, S. J. (2017). The role of collective efficacy in closing student achievement gaps: A mixed methods study of school leadership for excellence and equity. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 22(4), 220-236.

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Oakes, J., Maier, A., & Daniel, J. (2017). Community Schools: An Evidence-Based Strategy for Equitable School Improvement. National Education Policy Center. Web.

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544.

Pearman, F. A., Curran, F. C., Fisher, B., & Gardella, J. (2019). Are achievement gaps related to discipline gaps? Evidence from national data. Aera Open, 5(4), 1-18.

RAND. (n.d.). Minority students. Web.

Ratcliff, N. J., Carroll, K. L., Jones, C. R., Costner, R. H., Sheehan, H. C., & Hunt, G. H. (2017). Behaviors of Teachers and Their Students in Schools with and without an Achievement Gap: An Observational Study. Teacher Educators’ Journal, 10, 118-141.

School Digger. (2021). Granby Elementary. Web.

Shamir, H., Pocklington, D., Feehan, K., & Yoder, E. (2019). Bridging the Achievement Gap for Low-Performing Students Using Computer-Adaptive Instruction. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 9(3).

Virginia Department of Education. (2020a). Granby Elementary. Web.

Virginia Department of Education. (2020b). SOL test results. Web.

Williams, B. T. (2005). Standardized students: The problems with writing for tests instead of people. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(2), 152-158.

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