The key conceptualization of this reflective essay is an in-depth analysis of an interactive education lesson from the perspective of issues surrounding quality in the learning environment. Besides, the treatise explores teaching methodology, lesson planning, research, and objectivity. In addition, the paper is specific on approaches and theories related to inclusive education and delivery. Learning involves numerous interacting concepts that function simultaneously and quantitatively to facilitate qualitative delivery of a well-researched, briefly presented, and properly understood the topic for every subject of the study. Often, this process commences with lesson planning in which the teacher has to draw a brief summary of the vital concepts to be presented to students. In the lesson plan, the teacher has to present a properly researched and relevant objective, materials, evaluation criteria, and a sequence of steps on how the above concepts occur. Thus, a properly presented and well-understood lesson is heavily aligned towards pre-planning, presentation, and relevance. In order to achieve this, it is essential for the educator to create an interactive, inclusive, and healthy learning environment free from learning impediments such as ambiguity in language, discomfort or insufficient learning materials, and technicality in presentation. Generally, it is necessary for an educator to appreciate the fact that a learner has different abilities. These variances should function as an opportunity when designing teaching methodology and its actualization.
Lesson planning and execution is vital in presenting practical, simplified, and understood concepts to learners at every level of learning. Therefore, before commencing a lesson plan, it is necessary for the educator to understand the level of learning his/her students are in. As a matter of fact, every learning level has special needs unique to it. These needs include learning methodology, conceptualization, and duration or period of understanding a concept. The success of a well-planned and properly executed lesson plan is dependent on its preparation, teaching process, and evaluation. Preparation functions actively on research, a recap of previous concepts, and formulating learning objectives or objectives out of these concepts. In addition, this stage determines time allocation, learning concepts retribution, and evaluation design implementation. In the lesson plan actualization or teaching process, several interactive methodologies are revealed and must be actualized within a time limit: fifteen minutes running concurrently. In the process, the concept of balancing, time management, and allocation to each sub-topic plays out. Reflectively, this process is inclusive of the needs of every learner, simplified, and free from ambiguity or confusion as to the intention of imparting knowledge revolves around the understanding. Therefore, this treatise attempts to reflect on the skills to be presented, measurable performance, and performance condition in the topic ‘theme of Social interaction’ from the book “NIGHT” by Elie Wiesel. In addition, these parts are analyzed independently while presenting the most appropriate methods and planning in order to actualize them. Besides, the paper resonates on simultaneous interaction among these concepts at micro and macro levels and their similarities and variances.
Class Size and Unique Features of the class
The class size consists of seventeen students; seven Latinos, four Filipinos, two from California, a Vietnamese, an Egyptian, and a Nigerian. Reflectively this class represents a picture of the entire globe. Therefore, it is important to streamline the lesson plan to capture special needs for the minorities from Nigeria, Egypt, Iraq, and Vietnam. In order to keep them from feeling out of place, the lesson objective adopts an inclusive education and interactive lesson session where every student is expected to contribute equally. Besides the number, the class includes two ninth-grade students with a cumulative score of ‘Far Below Basic’ (FBB) on language as an art test. There are three ninth-graders, four 11th graders and one 12th grader that have scored Below Basic (BB). There is one 9th grader, three 10th graders and three 11th graders who have scored Basic (B). Therefore, it is important to appreciate the disparities in grade scores, level of each student, and special needs a learner may require. In addition, proper attention is accorded to every student depending on the grading and level of learning. From the previous assessment, it is apparent that the Egyptian and Vietnam students, who happen to be in the 9th grade, have lower proficiency in English since it is a second language in their country of origin and have a cumulative score of FBB. Moreover, the Nigerian student who is also a 9th grader, alongside two other Filipinos and four 11th graders from Pilipino, Latin and Iraq has slightly below the average score in language as an art and is graded at BB. In addition, three 10th graders from Latino and three 11th graders; two from California and one from Latino have a score of B. This class consists of bilingual learners especially students from Nigeria, Egypt, Iraq, Filipino, Vietnam and Latino who uses English as a second language.
The section outlines the expected outcome of the presentation in form of skills, knowledge, abilities or attitudes that the students should possess or demonstrate at the end of the class. The outcome can be categorized into three, that is, the skills that the students are expected to possess after the instruction, measurable performance and performance conditions. Bloom outlined the hierarchy of cognitive objectives of learning – from simple to complex – as, knowledge (remembering information), comprehension (ability to acquire meaning from the information), application (ability to use the information), analysis (ability to break information into parts to understand it better), synthesis (ability to consolidated materials together to create something new) and evaluation (ability to check, judge, and critique materials). The lesson will be a play of the novel “NIGHT” by Elie Wiesel where each student will be a character and performs his or her part. At the end of the class activity “Readers Theater”, the Advanced ESL students are expected to, know and name what they learned, how they learned it and how they can use this learning now and in the future. These instructional objectives summarize Bloom’s hierarchy of cognitive learning. However, due to the bilingual nature of learners in this class, several instructional challenges are likely to be encountered in the process of implementing the lesson objectives stated above. To begin with, a basic understanding of English as an art varies with the majority in BB. Therefore, it is important to incorporate simple English vocabulary and sentence structure in explaining and acting parts of the book used in the class. In addition, the issue of the minority is likely to play out in presentation due to fear and an undefined inferiority complex. Therefore, the lesson will adopt practical, interactive and inclusive learning to minimize the impact of these impediments.
Characteristics of students with special needs
Specifically, every learner in this setting has different social and behavioral tendencies. The Nigerian is always drawn to himself, the Egyptian student uncertain when giving answers, and the Filipinos always crowding together. The learner of Iraqi origin has a slight hearing challenge and would be active if I increase the pitch of my voice. The rest are normal students. This class consists of different grades of students with different levels of learning, that is, ninth grade, tenth grade, and eleventh grade incorporated in a single class. As a professional teacher who has to accommodate these characteristics, the lesson will incorporate visual aids, a short film, and clear charts for an explanation of the lesson objectives. Therefore, inclusive education adopted provides a practical alternative that is likely to make every student comfortable with the lesson.
Planning and Teaching
This lesson encompasses the proximal development and language-content goal actualization. This objective is important in training learners to not only understand concepts in the syllabus, but also to orientate them to the basics of self-expression, confidence in speech, creativity, and qualitative analysis through proper use of the English language. Thus, this objective is not only relevant but also practical and achievable within the fifteen minutes lesson plan. Since the objective is incorporated in the inclusive learning process, it incorporates the special needs, bilingualism, and different levels of learning and cumulative grade rubric. In the long term, the goal facilitates interactive learning, sensitivity, and creativity amidst diversity. These traits are important in promoting confidence, language proficiency, and thoroughness in analysis. Due to the uniqueness of the class setting, prior knowledge of the special needs of each learner facilitated proper development of the lesson plan and dramatization of the learning process through the use of visual supplements to make the lesson interactive and more interesting.
In lesson planning, the Zone of Proximal Development concept holds that an ESL student acquires concepts first through social interaction with others, and then interpersonally where those concepts are internalized. A play of the novel will be an excellent ground for the social interaction of the students. Thereafter, each can internally conceptualize the novel – through further readings and lectures from the teacher – for a better outcome. In addition, language goals are designed to assist in monitoring the growth of a student in languages say from basic, to intermediary and finally to advanced level. These language goals operate on the assumption that the student has a prior understanding of Language in this lesson and that he/she has a compact mastery of the same. The standard goals help teachers to position and categorize students in different groups based on their proficiency in a language. Basically, these goals are aligned towards relevancy and a simplified understanding of language the educator intends to use when imparting knowledge. Content goals define the essential intended knowledge of the subject. Reflectively, the content of the topic for every lesson must function on the periphery of practicality and relevance in line with the objectives of the study topic. They are characterized by facts, concepts, and skills about the subject of the study. This section will discuss the language goals for the class. The basic language goals can be classified into listening and speaking, pronunciation, reading fluency and systematic vocabulary development, reading comprehension, literary response and analysis, and writing strategies and applications. This can be broadly classified into reading standards, listening and speaking standards (pronunciation), and creativity. The table below summarizes what is expected of each student at the end of the class.
|Standards||Mode of evaluation|
|1||Listening & speaking||The student should be able to, |
Teachers who are successful and on purpose in planning and implementing instructions designed to meet the varied needs of the children in their classroom have an extensive impact on their student’s reading accomplishments. Therefore, it is important for teachers to understand what is to be learned, the progress of each student in learning and what the teacher can do to boost the progress of every learner. Besides, it is vital for the teacher not to base the learning process on assumptions. Rather, every concept imparted should be treated as fresh information which is presented in such a manner that the learner would benefit fully. In addition, discrimination tendencies and intimidation should be kept at bay if the lesson is to meet its goals of introducing new concepts and imparting the same in students.
Success and ease of actualization of a lesson plan depends on the design and technical planning before delivery. This success is quantifiable on the facets of abilities to speak, read, and accurately pronounce. Within a time frame of fifteen minutes, the following lesson plan presents a balance and distribution of various sub-topics in terms of time allocation. This lesson plan reflects on the play of the novel “NIGHT” by Elie Wiesel where each student will be a character and performs his or her part. At the end of the class activity “Readers Theater”, the Advanced ESL students are expected to know and name what they learned, how they learned it, and how they can use this learning now and in the future. These instructional objectives summarize Bloom’s hierarchy of cognitive learning which captures the learning process and evaluation rubric. This lesson plan explores the theme of social interaction; state of friendly dialogue and counter dialogue in Germany during the Second World War as reflected by the author Elie Wiesel. The book has different personalities Assigned to characters who assume the traits given to them by the author. The book is reflective of the war period, participants of war, and the consequences of war experienced in different societies across the world. This theme is used as a proactive point to facilitate understanding of literature and social aspects of the society while internalizing active appreciation of cultural uniqueness especially on patterns of speech across regions, the ethnographic encounter of complexities, and the persistent need to appreciate and evaluate primary sources keenly in order to identify misinformation and various biases in each.
Students will appreciate and develop:
- Heightened awareness of the literary styles and appropriate use in writing and reading
- Enhances skills of analysis in studying primary sources of information critically
- Internalize respect and appreciation of cultural variances in the learning environment and think as a global citizen
The time frame allocated for this lesson is fifteen minutes and these objectives must be properly balanced and presented in the most appropriate way within this time limit.
Resources and Materials to Use
- Printed copies of the book “NIGHT”
- Printed pamphlets on the theme of social interaction
- Printed copies of review of the book “NIGHT”
- A pie-chart on common sub-themes within the theme of Social interaction
- A clear worksheet for practical presentation
- Student’s exercise book
Technology Resources to Use
- Internet sources for the student to explore the significance of theme as a literary style in graded assignment after lesson
- Audio recorder
- Video recording devise
Materials distribution (1 minute)
- Ideally, the student is expected to have read the book “NIGHT” in the last one month as an individual and in a group of four. In addition, the syllabus dictates that the learner is expected to have derived various themes on his/her own from the reading.
- English Language as an Art
- The student should have prior knowledge of audiovisual and dialogue presented in the literature. In addition, this should include understanding of the concepts such as metaphor, idiomatic expressions, and similes among others.
Learning Activities (9 minutes)
- To Introduce and explain the meaning of the theme of social interaction and relate it to the novel “NIGHT” in chapter two.
- The student to give examples of various instances in chapter two where the theme of social interaction plays out.
- Brief debate on understanding culture on the periphery of norms and values that are different from their own, and are important in interactive dialogue
- The student is to assume the role of a character in the book, “NIGHT” and dramatic the role assigned to the character of choice
- The choice of words to use in presenting the audio version should have a relationship with the topic
- In groups of four, the student should present his/her part of the dramatization in a verbal conversation and explain the choice of words and selected parts
- The student is to reflect on assumptions about the topic and the author and appropriately classify the genre of the literature used in class
- The student is to explain the relationship between the theme and the learning process
- From palpable hints, the learner is expected to reveal the broken link between language and literature and answer the three questions after lesson
- The learner is expected to pose a question before other students and participate in the oral answer section while writing the given answers down correctly
- The learner is expected to present clear pronunciation for words used in dramatization and explain the meaning of these words is related to literature.
The choice of these materials is guided by the need for an interactive session making every student participate as an active learner. Every identified talent and creativity is recorded in the worksheet and acts dramatized edited from the class textbook. Since the book “NIGHT” is written in simple English vocabulary, it is the most appropriate as a learning material for the majority in this class who are at BB in the use of the English language as art in communication. Written materials and video recording devise complement the dramatization process. Besides, each student is given an opportunity to pronounce words as the recording continues in a creative manner. At the end of the dramatization, this device is played back and every student is given an opportunity to listen to his/her pronunciation of common words as arranged in the worksheet. Therefore, these materials complement the creativity, practicality, and pronunciation goals.
Video Recording Analysis
As the theme of interactive conversation progress, every student is given an activity to dramatize. Before starting the video recording session, the student is given an opportunity to vividly talk about any issue related to the topic and seek clarification for any part not properly understood. From the issues and questions raised, the instructor is in a position to quantify the level of understanding of the topic discussed by reflecting on the learner’s perception, distinctiveness, attentiveness, and understanding. After this part is completed, the student is given a part to dramatize with a partner who is picked randomly. As the learner interacts with his/her partner, a video recorder is rolled and every word pronounced recorded. Comprehensive attention is accorded relevant concepts that are simplified to accommodate different cultural origins, language accents, and speed of learning concepts; fast and slow learners. In addition, the attention is given according to learning level, special needs, and grade score in the rubric of basic use of English as an art.
Assessment of the recorded content (4 minutes)
This segment will reflect on proper pronunciation, use of the right vocabulary, creativity, and ease of interaction in terms of gestures, confidence, and understanding of the concepts. In addition, the importance of this section is the active reflection on practical aspects of the lesson at the macro level to achieve the desired goal. In assessment, the analysis evaluates understanding of the tropic via written and spoken words besides gesture in dramatization, especially in pronunciation and proper use of the most appropriate vocabulary. After this, the instructor is to apply to mark procedure to verify understanding of the topic via various tools such as the oral reading fluency rubric, oral presentation, evaluation sheet, active listening rubric, and student assessment on the facets of interactive learning, proactive presentation, and peer editing. In the end, the educator is to make a comprehensive evaluation of the success and recommendations based on the score in the evaluation rubric.
The evaluation rubric consists of three parts, that is, speech and gesture, pronunciation, and creativity. These three segments reflect on understanding of the topic and are important in evaluating progress for the preceding lessons. In order to evaluate speech and gesture skills, the educator should proactively analyze full participation in social conversations by the learner, especially during play performance, by asking and answering questions and soliciting information. However, this should not be the main basis of understanding participation since the classroom consists of learners from different linguistic backgrounds and may find flawless expression an uphill task. Therefore, the learner, during the play, should retell the story (of the part he/she is representing) in greater detail by including the characters, setting, and plot as related to the theme of social interaction, and dramatize the character displaying characteristics related to the theme. In addition, this should be done in a free environment by ensuring that all learners participate equally.
Besides, the educator should be keen on telling the learner to self-reflect about what he/she has learned and share with the whole class. Expanded vocabulary, descriptive words, and paraphrasing should come out during their presentations when the educator is in a position to apply the most appropriate evaluation methodology. Therefore, it is possible for the teacher to evaluate the ability of the learner to listen attentively to the storyline and information and be able to orally identify key details and concepts brought out in the novel. In the process of achieving this, the evaluator should make the learner understand him/herself during the oral presentation by using consistent grammatical forms of English, sounds, intonation, pitch, and modulation. This is a precautionary measure to check on the possibility of the student making random errors when retelling the story.
Analysis of the video
As recoded during the lesson, every learner is creative, active, and clear on the learning objectives. For instance, the learner with the hearing problem was able to convince his partner in an argumentative dialogue on the rationale of appreciative diversity. Despite being physically challenged, he properly pronounced every word correctly though at a slower pace. The words which seem challenging to pronounce to foreign students were “antagonistic tendencies” with the learner from Nigeria simply murmuring something like “antagolis”. In gesture and confidence in speaking, the student score is dependent on tone, audibility, and gesture. Since the video is played in class, every learner is in a position to view and listen to their pronunciation of different words. As a result, it was apparent that the learner noted mistakes in pronunciation and gestures in speaking confidently. Reflectively, these aspects promote creativity and appreciation of diversity in conversation.
In the word pronunciation evaluation rubric, the educator should reflect on the ability of the learner to pronounce most English phonemes correctly while reading and doing oral presentations and using literary terms in articulating arguments. Also, the ability of the learner to read simple vocabulary, phrases, and sentences independently should be incorporated in the evaluation sheet as this projects the overall aim of proactive learning. Besides, the teacher should be in a position to grade the ability of the learner to pronounce clearly an increasing number of English words, apply knowledge of content-related vocabulary to the play and while reading, and exhibit internalization of English grammar, usage, and word choice by identifying and correcting errors when speaking or reading during play. Generally, the pronunciation evaluation rubric is essential in the classroom lesson environment in determining the effortless use of more complex vocabulary and sentences to communicate needs and express ideas during a class discussion in order to quantify the mastery of the topic of learning. As noted in the recorded video, the student from Iraqi (in grey shirt) is audible and eloquent. Besides, the student from Egypt (in brown shirt) is consistent in proper pronunciation and use of suitable tone in dialogue. Consequently, when the learner scores 75% and above is the ability to read stories and respond orally in simple sentences to factual comprehension questions about the stories, the intended goals can be classified as achieved.
In the creativity evaluation rubric, the educator is tasked with the responsibility of drawing an inclusive tool of assigning values for the ability to be creative in dramatization which includes elements of the novel and characters while at the same time, is exhaustive on the theme of interactive conversation. In addition, this evaluation should include a thorough understanding of literary devices and literary words, phrases, synonyms, symbolism, and use of metaphor among other styles captured in the book. From the written assignment, it is of the essence for the teacher to point out, without much effort the ability of a learner to effortlessly produce independent writing that is understood when read. Reflectively, the content goals define the essential intended knowledge of the subject. The content of the topic for every lesson must function on the periphery of practicality and relevance in line with the objectives of the study topic. They are characterized by facts, concepts, and skills about the subject of the study. Therefore, the evaluation rubric should be based on these goals and should be free from biasness and favors. Based on the results obtained, the learning environment created by the above lesson plan was successful. As a matter of fact, at the end of the lesson, the learner was in a position to properly pronounce Basic English words correctly, dramatize a conversation with confidence and creatively articulate ideas in simple but appropriately applied vocabularies.
Language goals are technically designed to assist in supervising and reviewing the growth of a learner in languages say from basic, to intermediary and finally to advanced level. At the macro level, it is assumed that the learner has a basic understanding of the language used in imparting knowledge. These language goals operate on the lesson and that they have a compact mastery of the same. The standard goals help teachers to position and categorize students in different groups based on their proficiency in a language often determined by geographical region of origin, and learning environment from lower educational levels. Basically, these goals are aligned towards relevancy and simplified understanding of language the educator intends to use when imparting knowledge which in this case is English. Instances of the language skills goal are the proper use of vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, and mastery of the most appropriate words used in context. As reflected in the above lesson plan, the language development concept enables both the teacher and learner to embrace diversity as a positive aspect of learning and not necessarily dogmatic as some people assume.
On the other hand, Content goals define the essential intended knowledge of the subject. In this case, it is addressed through imparting literary skills of analysis, reflection, and informed conclusion on the theme of social interaction as part of literature tools of book analysis. Reflectively, the content of the topic for every lesson must function on the periphery of practicality and relevance in line with the objectives of the study topic. This is the same as the relation of the theme to contemporary issues happening in the previous, current, and predictable future. They are characterized by facts, concepts, and skills about the subject of the study. The basics of this goal can be classified into systematic vocabulary development, reading comprehension, literary response and analysis, and application of these concepts in understanding themes in a piece of literature.
The choice of techniques used in this lesson augured well with the learners who appreciated practical and interesting learning techniques. Despite disparities in social and regional cohesion, the learner was in a position to emulate interactive, creative, and inclusive education. Notably, the introduction of video recording ensured that every learner was actively involved through the lesson as reflected by numerous questions asked before the discussion. Questions asked surrounded the significance of diversity, historical perspective, the art of public speaking, and best practices in practicing speaking. If the lesson was longer, the student would have been given an opportunity to make corrections in another recording. Despite differences in grade, level of learning, and geographical origin, the learners displayed good tolerance and respect to different opinions and even accommodated the funny ascent of the student from Vietnam.
Conclusively, the success of a lesson in any discursive topic relies solely on proper planning and adaptation of appropriate teaching methodologies and practical strategies that are sustainable and relevant to a level of learning. In the process, an evaluation criterion should be in place to measure quantifiable aspects such as consistency in speech and listening, pronunciation, and creativity. After this, the instructor is to apply to mark procedures to verify understanding of the topic via various tools such as oral reading fluency rubric, oral presentation evaluation sheet, active listening rubric, and student assessment on the facets of interactive learning, proactive presentation, and peer editing. In addition, the process should operate on the periphery of language and content components which are essential in determining the level of success of a lesson session. In the discursive segment, the student is given an opportunity to ask questions related to the topic and seek clarification for any part not properly understood. These questions may guide the instructor to quantify the success of the lesson in terms of comprehensive understanding level by reflecting on the learner’s perception, distinctiveness, attentiveness, and conceptualization of various ideas.