There are seven directions in the psychology; however, only four of these terms refer to actual philosophies of education: essentialism, perennialism, progressivism, and reconstruction. The other three theories belong to other areas of philosophy, and although they can be associated with education, they do not directly relate to it.
Each of the philosophies described in the video approaches the educational process from different points of view. Essentialism puts under the primary goal of education the need to teach basic skills, the most basic knowledge, for example, the so-called fundamental R’s: reading, writing, arithmetic, right conduct (TOP LET Reviewer, 2020). Teachers who follow this path use a rigorous, disciplined system of conveying specific knowledge. Students are expected to work hard, adhere to directions, and be practical that will enable them to become valuable members of society and develop independently with basic skills. Perennialism, on the other hand, teaches students not specific rules but everlasting ideas that can be applied at any time and any era (TOP LET Reviewer, 2020). In this case, education is based on the truths contained in classical literature, the ideas on which civilization is based. By studying them and gaining an understanding of how the world works through critical analysis, students will be able to apply this rational thinking in everyday life.
Progressivism is focused not on theory but practical application. In this case, education is formed from experience, from interaction with the outside world (TOP LET Reviewer, 2020). Only by studying the world on your student can get truly valuable knowledge that will be useful to a person in life. Adherents of this direction believe that only in this way can you effectively study the world and convey knowledge to the fullest extent. Finally, reconstructionism is a highly specific approach tailored to the particular task of interacting with society. This whole theory is designed to address social issues and carry out social reform by analyzing them (TOP LET Reviewer, 2020). The purpose of such education is to create a more just society, the establishment of universal democracy.
TOP LET Reviewer. (2020). Keywords to better understand the philosophies of education. YouTube. Web.