Metacognition means reflecting on reflection or learning how to learn if one talks about its implementation in the learning environment. Teachers need to create a metacognitive classroom environment so that their students developed the ability to learn effectively and control their learning outcomes. There are several ways to establish a metacognitive environment in the classroom. The first method is to encourage students’ reflections on their learning process, that is, how they have come to particular conclusions and what was challenging for them (Cotton, 2019). Teachers should also explain to students how reflecting on their learning will help them to close performance gaps and achieve classroom goals (ColumbiaLearn, 2018). Self-assessment is another way to create a metacognitive classroom environment, which consists in motivating students to ask themselves what they did well, what are their areas for improvement, and what they should do next (ColumbiaLearn, 2018). Peer assessment is also important since it teaches students to reflect on the answers of their classmates, thus enhancing their thinking (ColumbiaLearn, 2018). If teachers actively use reflection practices in the classroom, their students will get used to applying their thinking skills.
Metacognitive strategies are designed to provide students with the cognitive tools necessary to solve problems on their own and assess the found solutions. For example, to solve a mathematical problem, elementary school students may be proposed to identify the problem, draw a picture, check if the drawing matches the problem, and solve the problem (The IRIS Center Video Collection, 2018a). For high school students, the strategy for the same type of task is quite similar but has certain additional steps since adolescents possess more knowledge at this stage of education. Students are encouraged to apply their prior knowledge to solve the problem and self-assess the feasibility of the attained results based on their experience (The IRIS Center Video Collection, 2018b). Based on the discipline, the questions that students should ask themselves may differ. Still, the main goal is to teach them to assess their existing knowledge, the ability to integrate prior and new knowledge, and think of the ways of implementing gained information (ColumbiaLearn, 2018). With the use of metacognitive strategies, students will be aware of their strengths and weaknesses and become life-long learners in their adult lives.
ColumbiaLearn. (2018). MOOC EDSCI1x | Video 5: Metacognition | Effective teaching strategies. YouTube. Web.
Cotton, T. (2019). 5 ways to develop metacognition in the classroom. Cambridge University Press. Web.
The IRIS Center Video Collection. (2018). Metacognitive strategies: Elementary school. YouTube. Web.
The IRIS Center Video Collection. (2018). Metacognitive strategies: High school. Web.