Introduction. Differences Between the Two Research Paradigms
Definition of Terms:
- Quantitative research elucidates phenomena per the numerical data.
- Qualitative research generates findings not derived from statistical procedures.
- Quantitative research is informed by objectivist epistemology.
- Qualitative research is informed by constructivist epistemology.
- Qualitative research can be achieved through subjective epistemology.
- Qualitative researchers understand their research subjects and their perspectives (Yilmaz, 2013).
- Quantitative investigators are impartial and elicit objectivity.
- Qualitative research is informed with the axiological assumption.
- Quantitative research is deductive.
- Qualitative research involves inductive reasoning.
- quantitative research starts with the hypothesis or general rules.
- qualitative research begins with generalizations.
- Manipulation and control, use of standardized instruments, experimentation, and use of numerical indices typify quantitative studies.
- Qualitative research is characterized by surveys that are emergent.
- Investigators in qualitative research are used as research instruments.
Data Collection and Analysis
- Quantitative research utilizes data collection tools and numerical measures.
- Qualitative studies use participant observation, interviews, focus groups, and document analysis.
- Data evaluation in quantitative research utilizes mathematical approaches.
- In qualitative research, data analysis involves reading transcripts to distinguish common themes
Research Evaluation: Reliability and Validity Issues
- Reliability – the consistency of an instrument measure.
- Validity – research data accuracy.
- Standardized methods are utilized to ascertain a study’s reliability and validity in quantitative research.
- Qualitative investigators use credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability to determine validity and credibility.
- Dependability is enhanced research procedures and strategies have been clearly explained and their effectiveness determined (Yilmaz, 2013).
- Confirmability is enhanced following the evaluation of a study’s data analysis approach by an auditing process.
- Credibility – how true the participants find the study’s outcomes.
- Instead of ascertaining validity, researchers typically ascertain the study’s credibility.
- Instead of ascertaining a survey’s reliability, qualitative researchers question a study’s dependability.
- Credibility and trustworthiness rely on how well investigators elucidate the research subjects, activities, interactions, and setting.
- Qualitative research is suitable for individualized programs
- Quantitative research is appropriate for surveys involving large numbers of people.
Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311–325. Web.