Collecting and grading homework represents a sensitive issue in education and hinders potential challenges. Social cognitive theory entails the significance of observational learning that “occurs in the absence of overt performance by the learner” (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020, art. 101832). It implies that the motivation for learning can come from observing the environment and others and that the external environment influences the learning patterns. Moreover, the social cognitive model involves the assumption that the learning process becomes self-regulated (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). One can argue that Art Ames’ homework policy is the least effective because it does not allow students to be self-initiated, does not promote personal goals, and does not encourage independence or self-direction of learning.
Art Ames sticks to the principles that grading homework is not an essential part of the teaching-learning concept and that only checking the completion of assignments is sufficient. Nevertheless, it is crucial to develop self-regulated learning occurring when students establish personal learning goals and observe the progress (Eggen & Kauchak, 2020, p. 609). In such a way, Art Ames does not assess the learned material, which does not offer motivation for learners or a possibility to monitor the need for improvement or success. The social cognitive theory involves three primary phases, including forethought, performance, and self-reflection, that portrays the students’ evaluation and reactions to the learning efforts (Kitsantas & Cleary, 2016, p. 169). In the case of Art Ames’ grading policy, students do not have an opportunity to see the results of their attempts, which does not allow them to see their journey towards established personal objectives. Moreover, a checkmark for the completion might slow down the learning process because there will be a false feeling of achievement.
It is possible to claim that distributing and assessing homework is a crucial part of the learning process. Proper evaluation techniques can increase learners’ motivation to do better and to improve their skills. Timely assessments can serve as an additional incentive for students to learn and to develop self-direction and self-regulation. In other words, learners should receive an opportunity to form specific beliefs about their achievements, which can help them create new strategies or learning models. Thus, assessment of the homework is an integral stage of designing the students’ needs and opinions and establishing adequate motivations.
Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2020). Using educational psychology in teaching (11th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.
Kitsantas, A., & Cleary, T. J. (2016). The development of self-regulated learning during secondary school years. In K. R. Wentzel & D. B. Miele (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 169-187). Routledge.
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.