Online Learning Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

The pandemic has caused educational issues, the most considerable of which is the amount of independent work for children, which reduces their academic performance (Dhawan, 2020). Adnan and Anwar (2020) disagree that distance learning is ineffective and cannot provide the necessary knowledge. The results of online classes depend on the context, subject, goals, and personal characteristics of the student (Mayer, 2019). The greatest challenge arises while teaching young children, as they need physical, rather than virtual, contact with the educator (Singh & Thurman, 2019). Dung (2020) adds that another significant issue is access to telecommunications, as not everyone can have high-speed connections.

Tablets are the primary aids during online learning for both teachers and children (Greitemann and Melle, 2020). Dunn and Sweeney (2018) point out price as their primary advantage compared with the computer. Wang (2018) emphasizes their portability and insists on the number of useful apps and features as arguments for choosing an iPad. Another group of scholars does not share this standing and assumes that iPads may stifle children’s creative abilities (Aspiranti et al., 2020). They may steer kids’ education toward consumers, but not creators of information (Chambers et al., 2018).

Multimedia and interactive technologies are the primary advantages of the progress that enhance children’s academic performance (Savov et al., 2019). They allow connecting maximum human channels in order to perceive information (Septiani & Rejekiningsih, 2020). Multimedia holds the attention and promotes faster memorization due to the visualization (Rachmadtullah & Sumantri, 2018). However, Komalasari (2019) considers that the introduction of graphics does not provide effective communication. Saputri and Indriayu (2018) share this argument and acknowledge that multimedia is distracting and challenging to apply, and not all teachers have sufficient literacy.

According to Trust and Pektas (2018), creating complex interactive programs while using traditional methods wastes time and resources. This concept contributes to pedagogical design, which is the discipline of producing instructional materials (Almelhi, 2021). ADDIE is the most prominent model of subject development, as it breaks down the entire process into five stages (Ofosu-Asare et al., 2019). Widyastuti and Melle (2019) proved its practical application during the development of mathematics skills. They demonstrated that it improved student outcomes and recommended using ADDIE in pedagogical practice. Alnajdi (2018) compared groups of students where only one used ADIDE, and their results were better, which proves the model’s effectiveness. Education is complex, especially during a pandemic; however, many tools can facilitate the learning process.


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ChalkyPapers. "Online Learning Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic." May 24, 2023.