p. 240 Read the Abstract for an overall summary of the article
In the article under analysis, the authors investigate the peculiar features of organizational learning and individual learning and clarify the benefits of each concept in terms of the abilities that learners could develop. A longitudinal study is offered to four different organizations to test the available cognitive mapping methods. The findings of the article show that organizational learning could improve managerial understanding and lead to new organizational benefits in case unified actions are taken. Besides, certain dysfunctional aspects have to be taken into consideration because they could slow down the process of individual learning. In general, the abstract shows that the value of the chosen article is great and could be used in organizational survival and success.
p. 241, para 1. What are the main issues for validating claims about the success of organizational learning (OL)?
Campbell and Armstrong (2013) state that validating claims about organizational learning remains to be unclear due to the inabilities to provide clear definitions and explanations to the process and perspectives of organizational learning. Still, it is possible to use rigorous empirical tests and theories to succeed in this research. The article aims at developing and proving the offered model as possible to tests the effects of organizational learning in terms of cognitive mapping methods.
p.241 Who learns? What is meant by a ‘cognitive perspective’ of OL? What are the current views about OL in the literature?
A cognitive perspective on organizational learning is one of the possible methods to begin the investigation of organizational learning. According to this perspective, any learner is defined as an individual, who can study something new using various cognitive processes and share the knowledge as one of the ways to contribute organizational learning (Campbell & Armstrong, 2013). In addition to the cognitive perspective, there are also several social standpoints according to which current writers and researchers develop their skills and abilities. For example, it is suggested to develop the relations between such concepts as individual learning, practice, and everyday work. Such communication of practice helps to explain why the success of learners depends on different factors. In other words, the role of an individual cannot be neglected in the learning process. Still, it is not the only factor that has to be considered.
Pp 241-242 Individual, group, and organizational learning. How are individual mental models made specific? How do ‘shared’ mental models emerge in an organization?
Using the cognitive perspective, it becomes clear that individuals’ mental models play an important role in organizational learning. Any model is a critical element of the learning process during which individual learning turns into organizational learning. These individuals’ mental models explain personal views of the whole world and help to cover all possible explicit and implicit understandings. Many different ways could be offered to use these models, and dialogues or negotiations are the frequent options for learners. Such methods help to create shared mental models based on the already developed mental models. This emergence of shared mental models promotes a kind of repository of the already obtained knowledge in organizations (Campbell & Armstrong, 2013).
Pp 242-243 Organisational learning and organizational outcomes. What are the benefits of OL for organizations?
According to the literature analysis developed by Campbell and Armstrong (2013), organizational learning leads to several positive organizational outcomes that should be identified and discussed. For example, organizational learning helps to promote a competitive advantage in the field of strategic management. Organizations understand that it is necessary to consider the external environment and increase their advantages regarding the abilities of their competitiveness. Competitiveness is one of the possible methods which help to stay effective and necessary for society. Therefore, organizational learning is a chance to understand personal needs and possibilities and create a plan for competitions. Organizational learning also influences individual interpretations of theoretical frameworks.
Pp 243 Organisational learning and organizational outcomes Final paragraph
Why is ‘shared vision’ seen as important? What are some potential limitations of shared vision and shared mental models?
A shared vision is important due to its nature and development. The point is that it arises from the recognition of the real-world and the existing constraints that ordinary organizational members try to exchange to promote effective organizational learning (Campbell & Armstrong, 2013). The potential limitations of shared vision and shared mental models could be explained by the possibility of being changed with time and stay dependent on the opinions of certain members of organizations without the possibility to build a general opinion on a point. Besides, crucial environmental changes could be considered by one organization and neglected by another organization.
Pp 244 Organisational learning and organizational outcomes
What is needed for ‘organizational renewal’ and functional OL?
According to Campbell and Armstrong (2013), organizational renewal is the possibility for managers to change their already chosen mental models in regards to the environmental changes and possible details that could occur in the process of organizational learning. Everything that may be needed for organizational renewal and functional organizational learning is an organization with its members, who can negotiate and share the processes that depend and do not depend on the environmental changes.
P 244 Figure 1. Can you fit a recent change process in your organization to the model?
Taking into consideration the model developed by Campbell and Armstrong (2013), it seems to be easy to understand the value of recent change processes in the organization. For example, organizations may rely on individual mental models or shared mental models to investigate the environment and the available opportunities and resources to make the correct decisions and benefits. When an American service organization opens its office in the Gulf region, it is expected that its members consider the traditions and moral norms of society and respect the main principles such as gender relations or adult recognition.
Campbell, T. T., & Armstrong, S. J. (2013). A longitudinal study of individual and organisational learning, The Learning Organization, 20(3), 240-258.