Quotes are used in academic writing to give strength, authority, and persuasion to the author’s arguments and back up their ideas. Framing is a method of integrating quotes into an essay fluidly and with enough context so that the reader understands their purpose (Quoting: When and how to use quotations). To correctly frame a quote, it is recommended to follow a methodology that includes a range of basic principles.
In academic writing, evidence can be presented in the form of direct or indirect quotations. Indirect quotation, or paraphrasing, allows the author to convey information more efficiently and integrate it more smoothly into their own writing. Credit should be given to the source for any ideas or significant wording used in the paper. A direct quotation should be used when the author’s passage is particularly effective and well-written, explains a complex concept, or lends weight to the argument. The exact wording is also needed for technical accuracy or to emphasize the source’s opinion on the subject. Regardless of whether a direct or indirect quotation is used, it should be correctly introduced and attributed.
The first time the quote is introduced, some basic contextual information should be provided about the author, or the book or article from which the quote originates. Introductions or frames can come before, after, or in the middle of the quote. The clearest way is to use speaker tags or verbs of attribution, such as “says,” “claims,” or “according to.” Different words can imply different attitudes on the part of both speaker and author towards a quotation. For example, the verb “suggests” implies that the author gives their opinion or offers a solution to the problem rather than states a fact. Floating quotes that are included in a paragraph without integrating, framing, or introducing should be avoided.
If a quote is significant for the purpose of the paper, its importance should be explained to the reader. In this case, it is recommended to follow the quotation with one or more sentences of analysis, explaining what is interesting, significant, or helpful about it (Quoting: When and how to use quotations). If the quote is long, complex, or difficult to understand, it is advisable to follow up with a brief summary that explains why it is helpful to the argument.
In order for a direct quote to fit smoothly into the paragraph, its language can be tailored so that it fits into the grammar of the sentence. Either the words that are used to introduce the quote or the quotation itself can be modified, or only a part of a lengthy quotation can be used. Ellipses indicate that the author has removed a part of the original quotation, while brackets are used in case the tense of the verb, or a pronoun is changed. The quotation should not be modified to the extent that it differs grammatically from the original phrasing or becomes unrecognizable.
Overall, quoting is an important technique in academic writing that allows the author to incorporate the information from outside sources into their paper. It is important to correctly introduce, modify, and explain both direct and indirect quotes in order for them to be used efficiently and contribute to the general purpose of the paper. The frame placed around the quote should include background information before the quote and analysis after the quotes in order for it to fit in the text most smoothly.
Quoting: When and how to use quotations. Simon Fraser University, n.d., 2020. Web.