Training and Development Assignment

Lecture Formats

Lecture formats refer to the dissemination of learning materials from a teacher to a student using oral techniques (Martin et al., 2014). As a trainer, I find it hard to learn using lecture formats because of their rigidity – they limit ways in which information exchange happens. However, as a learner, I find lectures to be an effective format for gaining new knowledge because they enable one to cover a vast body of literature within a short time.

Learner and Teacher Focused Training

Learner-centered training prioritizes student needs in information exchange, while teacher-focused techniques prioritize teachers’ needs (Yıldırım & İspinar, 2019). One time, I took part in a simulation exercise, as an example of a learner-focused training method, and established that its main advantage was the freedom it allowed students to develop competencies through practice. However, the lack of structure in learner-based training (Yıldırım & İspinar, 2019) makes it difficult to instill discipline among students in the learning process.

Comparatively, I once engaged in a training program where role modeling was the preferred teacher-based training method. Its main advantage is that it is relatable to students who can ask questions and seek answers from accessible tutors (Yıldırım & İspinar, 2019). Comparatively, its disadvantage was the low retention of knowledge among learners because students are passively involved in the information exchange process (McGuire, 2014).

Cost of Training and Development

The cost of training and development is one area of the probe that interests me. It has affected me because my supervisors have dismissed some of my proposals for improving training and development initiatives in my workplace because of the uncertainty associated with human capital investments. Relative to this statement, Sheehan (2014) says, “Increased uncertainty would result in a reduction, or at least a postponement of investment until more information is known and/or until uncertainty diminished” (p. 16). Overall, this statement shows that training and development thrive in an environment where uncertainty is minimized. However, given the challenges posed by the current COVID-19 pandemic, how would the use of technology in training and development impact uncertainty?

Training Methods

Martin et al. (2014) highlighted case study and mentorship as examples of commonly used training methods. Their pros and cons appear in the table below.

Training Method Define in your own words Pros Cons
Case Study Case studies mimic a problem to use the insights obtained from it to find solutions that would address a real case. Researchers suggest that case studies provide rich data that would otherwise not be available by simply relying on teaching materials to teach (Martin et al., 2014).
I have found that the information provided in case studies is highly specific and could provide in-depth insight into a learning area.
Scholars suggest that the specificity of case dynamics makes it difficult to transfer knowledge in a case study across unrelated areas (Martin et al., 2014).
I have found that case studies provide a false sense of belief in one’s ability to solve problems because they lack the vigor, and vitality associated with real cases.
Mentoring and Apprenticeship Mentoring and apprenticeship involve a person in a position of authority transferring knowledge to a rookie. Research evidence indicates that mentoring and apprenticeship make it possible for people to acclimate faster to a learning environment, compared to an alternate scenario where there is no one to guide them (Martin et al., 2014).
I have found that people who learn through mentors are more confident than those who use alternate means.
Scholars suggest that mentorship and apprenticeship can create an unhealthy dependence among the parties involved (Martin et al., 2014).
I find that this technique fails to work when there is a mismatched pair.


Martin, B. O., Kolomitro, K., & Lam, T. C. M. (2014). Training methods: a review and analysis. Human Resource Development Review, 13(1), 11–35. Web.

McGuire, D. (2014). Human resource development (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Sheehan, M. (2014). Investment in training and development in times of uncertainty. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 16(1), 13–33. Web.

Yıldırım, R., & İspinar, D. (2019). A study of young gifted learners’ and their teachers’ perceptions of effective EFL learners. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 42(1), 85–104. Web.

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