Academic Writing Process and Its Stages


Academic writing is the ability to express your thoughts through persuasive text that contains only the main ideas and images. It is one of the primary skills taught in colleges and universities because it must be present in professional work, regardless of the field (Yarris et al., 2020). Academic writing is clear and precise, with proper punctuation and grammar. It consists of five processes, each of which is necessary to produce a good paper.

The Academic Writing Process

Academic writing begins with the Prewriting stage, in which the main task is determining the topic, finding the material, and taking the first notes. This stage consists of thoughtfully writing a response to the question of how writing will allow others to learn about the chosen topic (Shah, 2022). An excellent idea for this stage is to make a mind map on which all the thoughts will be loosely written. All information found is recorded in notes, which are then carefully analyzed. This stage is essential because it allows one to engage in a focused search for information, which will be built on all the following work.

The second stage is called Freewriting, or writing the first draft. Here it is essential to express all available thoughts based on the notes freely. Academic writing is standardly composed of an introduction and a thesis statement, followed by the central and final parts. The more detailed the first three components are, the better the work will be later on (Johnson, 2017). This is justified because the second stage creates a robust framework of writing, which will be edited last. Freewriting stage is crucial because it allows you to connect all the information and maximize the potential ideas of the letter.

The third stage Revising consists of revising the found information. The task here is to check the content and logical transitions from one thought to another (Johnson, 2017). The stage is also called The Second Draft because it covers a denser and more thorough check of the text. The writing process consists of checking the quantity and quality of the proposed content and analyzing the introduction and conclusion (Yarris et al., 2020), for example, whether they are sufficiently persuasive and necessary in a given context; whether they can be added to be appealing. This stage is essential for academic writing because it allows you to ask the central question of whether the material gathered makes sense or is underdeveloped.

The fourth stage is similar to the previous one; it is called Editing. The main goal is to subject the letter to critical analysis for coherence, grammar, spelling, and punctuation (Jonson, 2017). It is essential to repeat text analysis processes several times to identify errors (Osman et al., 2021). In addition, this stage finally reveals the benefits of the text after the previous steps. It is essential to check how the text looks in the eyes of the reader and whether there are conspicuous errors (Shah, 2022). The stage is necessary to verify the external and internal grammar of the text.

The last stage is the direct Publishing of academic writing. It is distributed to colleagues or faculty, and they learn something new from the written text. This process is perhaps the most unsettling because of the need to share one’s work with others (Osman et al., 2021). But it is also the most important – finally, the paper is done, and the demonstration of mastery to others is an opportunity to leave a trace of your ideas with other people.

Critical Thinking in the Practice of Writing

Critical thinking is an integral part of every academic writing process. The first step allows you to assess the relevance of the work and analyze the information you find immediately. In the second step, it is necessary to determine the completeness of the introduction and the reliability of the thesis statement (Tahira, & Haider, 2019). Then it is essential to carefully check the text, which is impossible without a critical appraisal. The fourth stage is an opportunity to revise the work again and find the last flaws. The final stage of critical thinking is an opportunity to assess the reaction to the text after publication. In general, critical thinking is undisputedly a vital part of producing a high-quality paper.


Thus, academic writing consists of several processes that flow seamlessly from one to another. The first stage of Prewriting is necessary to find information and evaluate it in advance. The second stage of Free Writing is needed to combine the found material into a single structure – introduction, central part and conclusion. The third stage of Revising is necessary to check the text for logic and organization. The next stage – Revising – is needed to reconcile and find the last flaws. The final step is to publish the text and present it to outsiders. Critical thinking is required at each stage, as it helps make the text complete, discrete, and valuable to the reader.


Johnson, A. P. (2017). Academic writing: Process and product. Rowman and Littlefield.

Osman, W., Abd Rahim, S., Bakar, A., & Rahman, D. (2021). Supporting the continuation of language teaching and learning at Malaysian higher education institution, International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counselling, 6(41), 172-182.

Shah, S. W. (2022). Academic writing for research and publication. Voices, 285, 10-11.

Tahira, M., & Haider, G. (2019). The role of critical thinking in academic writing: an investigation of EFL students’ perceptions and writing experiences. International Journal of Primary Education, 8(1), 1-30.

Yarris, L. M., Artino, A. R., Jr, Deiorio, N. M., Ten Cate, O., Sullivan, G. M., & Simpson, D. (2020). Envisioning the future of academic writing. Journal of graduate medical education, 12(1), 1–6.

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ChalkyPapers. "Academic Writing Process and Its Stages." May 11, 2023.