Academic Writing, Research Design and Methods

A publication in an academic journal requires one to prepare the materials rigorously, consider the ethics of the issue that the researcher will examine and the appropriateness of the chosen methods. Moreover, business research, such as the study of employee turnover intentions based on the salary levels and work satisfaction, should contain a review of the literature and findings of scholars regarding the same topic. This paper will examine the approach a researcher should take to prepare an academic journal paper based on the grant provided to study the impact of job satisfaction and salary on retention rates, highlight elements that a scholarly article should contain and discuss relevant literature, data collection methods, analysis and findings.

Academic Paper

Academic publications, especially in peer-reviewed journals, should be prepared with scrutiny and following the standards for such work. Academic journal papers should contain a description of all relevant aspects of research, beginning with an introduction to the article where the reasons for the study are outlined by the author, the scope and approach to gathering data. Retention can lead to additional expenses for the employer associated with a need to look for and hire a new employee, and this research can contribute to the expenditure decrease (Iqbal et al., 2020). For this research, the reasoning is the need to decrease employee turnover, and the assumption is that the objective can be achieved by affecting satisfaction and increasing salaries.

Next, a review of some literature on the selected or relevant to the research topic allows the researcher to highlight the previous findings and gaps that the present study will address. Related literature on the topic of turnover retention and elements that can have an impact on it includes research by Ahad et al. (2020) and Iqbal et al. (2017), who found that organisational culture plays a crucial role in determining satisfaction and retention rates. Ahad et al. (2020) argue that retention strategies are effective and can lead to a decrease in staff turnover. Moreover, in this study, some connection between retention and satisfaction was proven, meaning that further research can help find more relevant information on the topic. These researches are the most recent studies on the topic, which are based on prior studies and theory of motivation and organisational management, and they help define the scope of the problem and the gap in the literature that a new research can address.

Research Methods

The first step in designing the research method is determining whether the data that the researcher will collect should be qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research helps one take the role of another person, and explore a problem in-depth, to find the meaning of specific factors for people (Bryman and Bell, 2015). Quantitative research, however, is more suitable in this case because the findings should be based on responses from a substantial number of employees. Moreover, with this research, the grant issuer specifies that close-ended measures should be used. The implication is that quantitative methods can help accurately assess and organise the information from the employee’s responses.

The research method that should be used in this case is a survey. This is a versatile method since, according to Bryman and Bell (2015), they can be administered via emails or the Web. Although there is a critical distinction between the two, since email surveys are sent directly to a participant, both methods will enable an anonymous collection of close-ended information. Key steps with this method include identifying a target population, constructing a questionnaire, applying techniques for improving the questions and their accuracy, distributing and collecting the responses (Bryman and Bell, 2015). With this research, a cross-sectional study is an applicable option, since the method implies studying the chosen population once, and can help understand some characteristics of the employees at a given point in time (Bryman and Bell, 2015). Since the information will be compared using responses of multiple individuals, even this research design can help determine what factors have the most impact on turnover, without the need to survey the population over time repeatedly.


Ethical standards of research are the principles that people conducting the study must follow. The main consideration for a researcher with this topic should be the protection of employees’ identities and information about the companies where they will conduct this study. According to Bryman and Bell (2015, p. 129), ethical issues “relate directly to the integrity of the piece.” This academic paper should contain a section dedicated to disclosing any ethical considerations, citing the consent of the participants and business owners to conduct the research, and the authors should address any potential concerns.

There are four core principles of ethics that the researcher must consider when designing and carrying out the study. They are the potential harm to the participants, informed consent of the individuals, privacy considerations and deception (Bryman and Bell, 2015). With this research, the main concern is the potential harm if an employee dissatisfied with his or her work answers the questions, and the responses can be accessed by their employer. Hence, the anonymity of responses and designing the questions in a manner that will eliminate the possibility of identifying the company and the employee is essential.

Data Analysis and Findings

With this research, there are three variables – job satisfaction, salary, and turnover rate. The approach to data collection, determined by the grant, is close-ended and the participants will be recruited from either one large or several smaller companies, which implies a significant number of respondents and a data collection method that will enable an analysis of the substantial amount of data. As was mentioned, quantitative methods, such as surveys with close-ended questions, is the data collection method, and in this case, the cross-sectional design should be applied. Hence, the data will be collected once and analysed through statistical software.

Data analysis procedures are a necessary aspect of the research one uses to answer the initial research question based on the information the researcher collected. Since with this study, quantitative methods will be used, and the researcher will have to apply software that will enable statistical analysis, such as SPSS. According to Field (2015), IBM developed this software to aid behavioural and social scientists in analysing quantitative data without the need to use complex mathematical equations. Correlation the primary analysis method that will help determine the relationship between one’s intention to leave and satisfaction ar salary rates. The higher the correlation, the more significant the impact of one variable on another Field (2015). In addition, the software can be used to test the result’s reliability and validity.

Validity and the researcher’s ability to address potential threats to it by using appropriate statistical methods is a factor that makes this research and findings reliable. Additionally, validity considerations should be outlined in elements such as subject selection since bias at this stage can result in a systematic error (Strohmetz, 2010). Other issues may be connected to the instrument used to collect data, maturation, or the impact of factors outside the scope of the research that alter the participant’s behaviour and regression to mean should be considered in this case. One conclusion from the considerations about the study’s validity is the researchers should use academic literature, for example, a book by Bryman and Bell (2015) to select appropriate methods and avoid potential threats such as bias or use of unethical research strategies, to make certain that the publication will be accepted by the academic journal.

Discussion of the potential implications of findings is the concluding part of the article that will highlight how employers can use the results of this study to improve their hiring, and human resources management practises. The research can provide evidence that employees should either focus on increasing salaries or creating an environment where job satisfaction is the key. In addition, in a discussion section, one can outline the fundamental limitations, such as specific industry or a number of respondents and opportunities for future research.


In summary, this paper presents considerations about preparing a publication of an academic paper based on the research on job satisfaction, salary and turnover intentions of employees. Relevant literature on the topic, such as previous studies of job satisfaction, salary and retention, are examined. The study should be cross-sectional, and the data will be collected via an online survey and SPSS will be used to analyse the findings.

Reference list

Al Ahad, A., Rahat K., M. and Safiar R., M. (2020) ‘HR retention strategies for enhanced job satisfaction in a highly competitive job market: a study with private banking sector in Bangladesh’, International Journal of Social Sciences Perspectives, 6(1), pp. 53-58.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2015) Business research methods. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University.

Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. 5th edn. London: Sage.

Strohmetz, D. (2010) Activity: identifying potential threats to interval validity using MRS SMITH. Web.

Iqbal, S., Li G. and Shamim A. (2017) ‘Effects of job organizational culture, benefits, salary on job satisfaction ultimately affecting employee retention’, Review of Public Administration and Management 5, pp. 1-7.

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ChalkyPapers. "Academic Writing, Research Design and Methods." April 15, 2023.