One of the essential factors affecting the learning and teaching process is designing practical instructions that address diverse learning styles and academic backgrounds. Achieving knowledge in learning is evidenced in behavior changes and cognitive functions. Practical learning of students occurs due to effective teaching strategies and the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter. According to Schunk & DiBenedetto (2020), clarity of the teacher’s interest stimulation and opinion openness are critical factors in managing learning effectiveness and efficiency. Cheng et al. (2018) research describe the importance of joining the instructional techniques or strategies to the human learning theories. They argued that learning theories are considered a verifying source of instructional strategies and the foundation for specific selection strategies. The views provide adequate information about the relationships among the methods, learner characteristics, and context for better integration. Furthermore, the theories allow for reliable prediction of the selected effect on instructional strategies.
Constructivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism are among the primary learning theories used in the classroom. The above approaches differ in how the learning is defined, which drives learners with different roles and dictates that assessment strategies and other teaching methods are used. According to Thibaut et al. (2018), the primary principle of learning theories should be designed to capitalize on the learners’ experience. Adult learners are primarily independent in directing their learning as they have accumulated rich life experiences. Duchesne & McMaugh, (2018) argue that the theories motivate the learners to participate actively in the knowledge of learning and direct teaching selection methods that facilitate experiential learning. Information about behavior entry, delivery method, attitude towards content, general learning preferences, group characteristics, and academic motivation is very influential and helpful in designing instruction.
Cognitive theory assumes that the learners must be aligned with instructional conditions for learning to be effective. The cognitive architecture of learners consists of working memory, sensory memory, and long-term memory (Sun et al., 2018). The theory suggests that learning occurs through working memory which is very limited and long-term memory which is unlimited. Working memory consists of two significant processors that analyze the visual and auditory information and the executive system control that processes three load categories: extraneous, relevant stress, and intrinsic. The load cognitive that is inherent results from many elements that are interactive with the processes of the learners. Sun et al. (2018) suggest that teachers should look for ways to develop instructions that reflect characteristics combined for all three theories. They should only apply direct instructions for students who require intensive and mastery learning support when specific academic standards are supposed to be met. Furthermore, cooperative learning should be adopted when communication skills enhancement is the main objective of the syllabus course.
Many authors have argued that learning refers to acquiring knowledge through practice, experience, and training. The learning process is where people work together to discover and understand the evolving world. According to Duchesne & McMaugh, (2018), learning theories are the conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed during education, processed, and stored. Duchesne and McMaugh (2018) identify five learning domains that obstruct the learning experience such as direct instruction, motor development, intellectual capacity, attitudes, and cognitive strategies. They argue that motor skills need repetitive practice to master all the information.
On the other hand, cognitive strategies are skills organized that control learning internally, thinking, and remembering, which are learned through practice. Students attain these strategies by reflecting on their experiences while learning (Duchesne & McMaugh, 2018). Attitudes are considered not to be understood by method but in the affective domain. Changing attitudes requires reinforcement with human modeling and feedback as they affect the motivation of the students to learn.
Cheng, L., Ritzhaupt, A. D., & Antonenko, P. (2018). A meta-analysis of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students’ learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(4), 793–824. Web.
Duchesne, D. S., & McMaugh, D. A. (2018). Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching. In Google Books. Cengage A.U. Web.
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832. Web.
Sun, Z., Xie, K., & Anderman, L. H. (2018). The role of self-regulated learning in students’ success in flipped undergraduate math courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 36, 41–53. Web.
Thibaut, L., Knipprath, H., Dehaene, W., & Depaepe, F. (2018). The influence of teachers’ attitudes and school context on instructional practices in integrated STEM education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 190–205. Web.