Childhood Practices and Allowances


Childhood practice is an essential component for the development of abilities and skills in kids, beginning in childhood. This experience lays the foundation for the full evolution of a person’s knowledge and communication. The purpose of childhood practice is to provide a foundation for kids’ cognitive and social growth that will continue throughout their lives. Specialists for this practice are needed to help children overcome issues related to poverty, poor health, and other circumstances that can affect a person’s progress toward becoming a productive member of society.

Beveridge Report

The Beveridge Report is based on the social situation prevailing in Britain between the wars. The grounds for the creation and implementation of this plan are the state of inequality and the increased risk of poverty caused by an unstable political situation. At the same time, the birth rate and education for children decreased, which further created problems for the sufficient advancement of the state (Boettke, 2018). It was also the reason for changes at the state level that volunteering was no longer enough to improve the problems of social inequality. Accordingly, a plan was suggested for the development of the British state in the postwar period in the social sphere.

A significant achievement of the Beveridge Report was the increase in family benefits, which had been reduced during the war. At the same time, the effects of the Benefits Act were extended to all school-age children in order to ensure their access to education. Between 1964 and 1970, however, this changed, such as introducing extra payments for the fourth child or giving aid separately to each kid (Boettke, 2018). In this way, the additional funding brought families on the poverty line closer to general social standards.

Moreover, such support made it possible for children to be educated rather than work for their subsistence. Another important action after the Beveridge Report was to increase the time kids attended school; it was approved that children should study until the age of 15 (Boettke, 2018). At the same time, secondary education became available at no cost in order to allow students from all social backgrounds to develop and be supported. Thus, it prevented discrimination against socially disadvantaged young children for the basic needs that are essential to their well-being. Meanwhile, ensuring children’s basic rights also included free health care. Consequently, this permitted kids to have access to proper treatment and to feel care, which led to improved physical and moral well-being.

Two Current Laws Concerning Health Wellbeing

The Education Act 2004

First, the law entrusts the implementation of granted rights to provide for the requirements of children and youth to the local authorities. At the same time, it provides the opportunity for kids to receive additional help if they need it. In practice, such assistance is offered in early education and childcare centers or in specialized schools if kids have special disabilities. It is necessary to mention that parents, according to the law, have the right to know and receive advice on the individual demands of the child. This can include information about the learning achievements, positive and negative behaviors of the individual child, or problems with the assimilation of educational material. Such information will enable parents and professionals to intervene and address problems at an early stage (Riddell & Carmichael, 2019). Moreover, according to the law, different approaches to teaching and upbringing of children should be applied, focused on the specific needs of the child. To implement this, specialists who have the required knowledge and skills are involved.

The Children & Young People Act 2014

In addition, to education for pupils, the important provision of child welfare and protection legislation also provides the main part of the legal framework for child welfare and protection in Scotland. The Act states that such kids also have the right to express their views and opinions on issues that are meaningful to them. At the same time, it establishes that the welfare of children is a primary concern of the government, society, and parents. Accordingly, local authorities are empowered to intervene early in families where children are in need of assistance (Riddell & Carmichael, 2019). Furthermore, the basic principles of the law are the requirement to recognize identity and point of view and to promote the identification of the individual child in society. Moreover, the law imposes a duty on parents and teachers to educate their kids in a way that avoids discrimination and violence. This upbringing should contribute to the child’s well-being and multifaceted growth.

Education and Training (Welfare of Children) Bill 2021

The law imposes a duty, not only on schools but also on other educational institutions where pupils over the age of sixteen are enrolled, to promote the welfare of children in Great Britain. Thus, it enshrines the fact that the health and safety of children should be taken into special consideration; in case of problems, qualified assistance has to be provided. At the same time, teachers and other educators must contribute to the development of the individual child, stimulate their achievements and help when challenges arise (Valentine, 2017). Another characteristic of the law is the protection of children from discrimination and social claims to form a healthy personality.

Priority frameworks Related to Health Inequalities

Health inequality means that children of different social statuses have various access to treatment, and the quality of care for kids from lower strata is worst. It also occurs that even certain types of goods and services that are vital are not available worst (Richardson, Jindal‐Snape, and Hannah, 2017). It should also be noted that some infants are more exposed to negative phenomena such as toxins and infections due to unfavorable living conditions.

Public Health Priorities Framework 2019

The primary goal is to ensure healthy children’s access and to provide additional funding to care for children. The structure also monitors free access to medicine and supports families in need. The structure’s efforts are even aimed at supporting pregnancies to ensure that the mother and baby in the womb are properly cared for. This is extremely valuable and essential because disadvantaged women may not follow the progress of their pregnancies and may not detect issues with their infants in time. At the same time, another activity of the framework that plays an essential role in the physical and moral health of children is the dissemination of information about proper parenting, which will promote emotional well-being and will not cause mental illness (Richardson, Jindal‐Snape, and Hannah, 2017). In case of such challenges, the framework offers assistance to children and individual rehabilitation. It should be noted that the structure allocates funds for the early education of young children from the lower strata of the population, which will reduce the poverty gap.

National Guidance on Child Protection in Scotland 2021

The guidelines note that agencies must assist families and caregivers in order to ensure the proper health of infants and children and to avoid discrimination. The importance of this manual lies in the fact that it coordinates the activities and communication between the bodies that must respond to issues of access to medicine for kids from different social classes. Accordingly, the roles of each authority and official with powers are established (Richardson, Jindal‐Snape, and Hannah, 2017). Thus, it makes it possible to respond extremely quickly to the emergence of problems with disparities in health care and to monitor the conditions of children from disadvantaged families.

National Child Health and Wellbeing Strategy

The U.K. government has introduced a program under which additional funds are allocated to provide medical personnel who will work with infants who need help. At the same time, the system aims to support newborn children and provide them with the necessary conditions to maintain the child’s health if the family does not have the resources to do so (Valentine, 2017). In addition, the plan aims to reduce income inequality among the population, which leads to difficulties with housing conditions or access to medicine.

Current Initiatives

Baby Boxes

The importance of this program is to ensure that newborn children have the things they need to ensure their proper functioning and health. It should be noted that the government gives out such a box completely free of charge; people from all strata of the population are entitled to receive it. It is especially useful for low-income families, as it is aimed at providing primary assistance to the child to ensure its rights (Richardson, Jindal‐Snape, and Hannah, 2017). Such an initiative is undoubtedly successful because it aims to educate parents about baby care, facilitates financial expenditures, and promotes equal access to government benefits for kids.

Early Years Expansion

The initiative aims to improve education for children in order to bridge the poverty gap. Thus, the positive impact of this program is that kids two to four years old are eligible for free preschool education and meals. Such a program is essential for poor families who cannot provide for the proper advancement of their infants. Moreover, during this program, the child’s health is also monitored, and problems that need to be addressed are identified. As a result, children from the lowest ranks of the population receive comprehensive care and education that helps reduce the risks of falling behind their peers (Richardson, Jindal‐Snape, and Hannah, 2017). It is worth noting that both practices are also common throughout the United Kingdom to ensure that newborns have the right environment to live in and avoid potential health problems.

Preventive Health Measures


It is significant to mention that in Scotland and in the U.K., vaccination is often a condition for getting a child into daycare or school. The advantage of deciding to vaccinate kids is that this way, children will be protected against diseases that can progress and negatively affect their health in adulthood. The recommended vaccinations in Scotland and Great Britain, including all advanced countries, include pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis, rubella, and smallpox. Previously, it was these diseases that caused the promotion of infant mortality, but now, due to the high rate of vaccination in the United Kingdom, children acquire immunity to these diseases.

Although it should be stressed that immunizations can sometimes have negative effects, they can be prevented through knowledge of the health of the individual infant (Haider, Willocks, and Anderson, 2019). Still, a list of negative effects has to be mentioned; these are allergic reactions and side effects. In general, with an assessment of health and its characteristics, vaccination will help protect the baby from disease.


Childsmile aims to provide all children with equal access to oral health and dental services. The program primarily targets vulnerable families and provides them with targeted support in the form of free oral health screenings and the means to maintain proper dental health. The effectiveness of the system can be demonstrated statistically; accordingly, in 2008, fifty-seven percent of children five years old had no problems with tooth decay, and in 2014 the figure dropped to nearly seventy percent (Haider, Willocks, and Anderson, 2019). The negative characteristics, though, include the high cost of the program to the government. Accordingly, water fluoridation would be more beneficial to all kids, not just those from poor families, and would reduce caries, but the cost would be much lower. It is also significant to note that the program is now successful throughout Great Britain and reduces the disparity in children’s dental health.

The Role of Early Intervention Practice

Early intervention can be described as a process concerned with providing services and support to young children and their families. Such intervention is particularly useful to ensure the appropriate development of the child at risk. For example, to help overcome mental or physical developmental problems, disabilities, or other issues related to the child’s health condition (Arnott, Palaiologou, and Gray, 2019). Early intervention is about meeting needs in areas such as emotional and social support and physical and cognitive growth.

It is significant to note that Forest Kindergarten uses an outdoor learning approach. At the same time, it is applied during the infant’s early years and focuses on receiving information through play. The program is designed to improve not only the child’s mental and physical development but also improve caregiving skills and respect for others. Interestingly, it is the experience that promotes environmental awareness and teaches children positive actions from an early age. Accordingly, children get positive emotions and perceive knowledge because of playing in the fresh air, which improves their health condition (Arnott, Palaiologou, and Gray, 2019). Moreover, kids learn to explore nature on their own and perceive data through their senses, which increases their adaptability to the world.


Thus, the focus of the child’s development is on the mental and emotional characteristics of the person. At the same time, in order to ensure a child’s proper growth, it is essential not only to develop their abilities but also to pay attention to their health. It should be noted that not all families can provide high standards of education, upbringing, and health protection for kids. In this case, there are state practices and allowances to ensure the decent growth of children. In Scotland and in Great Britain, there is enough legislation providing various benefits and assistance to low-income families, which guarantees proper childhood development. As a consequence, children from the lower ranks of the population will not fall behind other kids.

Reference List

Arnott, L., Palaiologou, I. and Gray, C. (2019) ‘Internet of toys across home and early childhood education: understanding the ecology of the child’s social world’, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 28(4), pp. 401-412.

Boettke, P. (2018) ‘Liberalism and the welfare state: Economists and arguments for the welfare state’, American Economic Association, 56(2), pp.703-706.

Haider, E., Willocks, L. and Anderson, N. (2019) ‘Identifying inequalities in childhood immunisation uptake and timeliness in southeast Scotland, 2008–2018: a retrospective cohort study’, Vaccine, 37 (37), pp. 5614-5624.

Richardson, T., Jindal‐Snape, D. and Hannah, E. (2017) ‘Impact of legislation on post‐school transition practice for young people with additional support needs in Scotland’, British Journal of Special Education, 44(3), pp. 239-256.

Riddell, S. and Carmichael, D. (2019) ‘The biggest extension of rights in Europe? Needs, rights and children with additional support needs in Scotland’, International journal of inclusive education, 23(5), 473-490.

Valentine, G. (2017) Public space and the culture of childhood. London: Routledge.

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