Nowadays, the problem of the students’ outperformance in science class is recognized by teachers, school administration, and U.S. officials. The government adopts policies that increase the students’ accountability and attempt to achieve a significant increase in the students’ performance. However, to attain positive results it is necessary to take into consideration many aspects influencing the level of proficiency both in teachers and students: the environment in school and class; teaching and learning models; students’ and teachers’ perceptions of various dimensions in education; students’ communication with peers and adults in school, etc.
Since the problem of outperformance in class is up-to-date, many researchers in education devote their studies to the examination of the educational models and their impacts on teachers and students. It is observed that the current generalized elementary school model may be rather considered ineffective. First of all, it is found that it is characterized by teachers’ heavy workloads, inefficient time management, and high level of stress (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). These effects of one-content class provoke negative impacts on teachers’ level of knowledge, self-efficacy, and confidence. As the result, poor instructing capabilities negatively affect students’ performance.
Investigation of departmentalization is of great significance because it can provide the solution for the present-day problems in elementary education. In the previous literature findings, the researchers demonstrate that the given model can positively affect teaching and learning processes in school. First of all, it is observed that departmentalization impacts the teachers’ perception of self and profession in a good way (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Johnson, 2013). Since in this model of class organization, teachers have to instruct different groups of students in one subject, then the time for the lesson preparation reduces. As the result, instructors can devote more time to the consolidation of their professional competency and knowledge, they design and plan lessons in a more creative way.
The researchers found that teachers play one of the most important roles in the development of the student’s academic capabilities (Horton, 2013). Therefore, the improvement of the teachers’ professional efficiency influences students’ performance well. However, many other factors must be taken into consideration while analyzing students’ academic achievements. When talking about the element students, along with the academic needs, it is important to evaluate their social and personal needs as well. The overall environment in school affects students’ perception of self, peers, and adults (Johnson, 2013). The disturbing climate in class may induce excess stress in the students, and they can experience difficulties in learning because of it.
In recent research, the findings regarding the effects of departmentalization of students are controversial, and the generalized model remains a preferred method of education in the vast majority of elementary schools. For the increase of the departmentalized model acceptance, it is important to provide reliable and valid data, first of all, regarding its influence on students. Therefore, the evaluation of the psychological and academic needs of the students is needed.
The investigation of departmentalization in relation to its positive and negative impacts on elementary students – their perceptions of self, the environment in class, self-efficiency, and communication with teachers – is very important for the field of education. The findings of the further research may contribute to the popularization of departmentalization as the alternative method of class organization.
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