Through my study of the module “Managing Change,” I found it very interesting, it’s designed to expand the concepts in management knowledge, basic knowledge of management. In the course of your study of the unit, you will be expected to understand all the issues surrounding the concept of change management.
These concepts are ideas of scholars put into practice and thus there is no difficulty. These are general practices applied to organisations in times of change to enable the organisation to manage it amicably. Some aspects of this course attracted my attention; firstly, it increased my analytical skills in that it motivated me to learn more about the issue. I can say it has improved my thinking and understanding of business and management.
In the study of the course, I have increased my understanding of the following areas of managing change.
- Aspects in manufacturing, marketing and competition analysis, discussion on the crisis of reality, including the potential crisis or major crisis,
- Forming a strong leadership background in organizational leadership.
- The formulation of organizational vision, mission and objective and the ways of enabling the managers to cope with change.
- My understanding of media planning strategy has increased my understanding. The aspects of behaviour change within the organisation have also been covered.
- Change and reform the ways of undertaking reforms and risk analysis mechanism. Performance appraisal and improvement mechanisms have been understood.
- Reward and motivation; the course has enabled me to understand the importance and the concepts of motivation and reward in improving the performance of the employees to enable the organisation to function at an optimal level. The process of hiring, training and promotion of the workforce has also been covered.
- The use of a managerial function to influence the performance of both the capital and the labour resources.
- The relationship between enterprises and successful leaders was understood, the ways to ensure it is effective and efficient leadership to ensure development in the organisation.
The growth of any literature is the improvement people add to the existing content, in my study I have identified the following problems associated with management.
First is the achievement and the relationship between the velocity of reform, the reform must pursue stage effect i.e. effect is the result of function and speed. Too many achievements in the organisation can lead to ignorance of the speed of change, it can make changes meaningless. Speed and ignorance of any achievements (won the lowest fruit) can make the whole organisation fail.
Secondly, the organization shape and combination can at times work against the success of the organisation. The connotation of management is to form a team to achieve the objectives of the organization in times of change. To successfully manage this team one must establish a corresponding system that includes human factors in its management.
I learnt these ideas from this course, it can be said that change should be managed since it is inevitable. I also learned how a change in the organization is conducted.
In the course, its aim is perfectly analysed conceptually and clearly. The success of teams in the organisation and how change is managed in the organisation was learned.
Change is an adaptation strategy in the organisation due to the ever-changing environmental factors.
Vivien Burr– is a principal lecturer in Psychology at the University of Huddersfield. Her book “Social Constructionism” introduces the area of social science theory and research which had come to be known as social Constructionism. She uses a variety of examples of everyday experiences and issues relevant to social Constructionism.
Jonathan Potter– is a professor of discourse analysis in the Department of Social Sciences at the University of Loughborough. He is the co-author of 6 and over 40 papers in the past 10 years that have provided a focus in social psychology for the study of discourse processes.
Kenneth Gergen– is a senior research professor of Psychology at Swarthmore College USA. Gergen’s work is associated with social Constructionism. He has been a major influence in social psychology since his and P. Davies’s 1967 book on The Self. He is an increasingly respected critic of psychological practice.
Rom Haare– is the Chair of the Sub-department of Philosophy at the University of Oxford and is currently Professor of Social Psychology at Georgetown University, Washington D.C. He has published over 30 books in the past 30 years, both in the Philosophy of Science and the foundations of Social Psychology.
Michel Foucault– was a French philosopher, historian, intellectual, critic and sociologist. He was known for his work on power, and the relationships between power, knowledge, and discourse.
John Shotter – is a professor and chair of the department of communication at the University of New Hampshire. He is one of the founders of the social construction paradigm in social psychology.
Yiannis Gabriel- is a professor of organizational theory at the school of Management, Royal Holloway University of London. Professor Gabriel is well known for his work in organizational storytelling and narratives, management learning and contemporary culture and politics.
The poem “Thinking is by the Canadian poet, Paul Dutton. It is published in “Word Score Utterance Choreography”
“Language shapes thought, not thought language. And language shapes thought not thought to be language-shapes. Though not thought to be language shapes language, shapes thought, shapes. Thought to be shaped not thought to be language shapes thoughts thought not to be shaped by language. Thought language shapes thought shapes shaped by language thought to be thought. Thought not to be language-shapes shapes language, shapes thought, shapes language-thought. Language thinks. Language thinks shapes are not shaped by language. Language thinks thoughts thought think language. Language thinks language.
This poem is a bit headless sequence the first time. But I read one it reminds me of a deeper meaning behind the previous language and how it connected with the idea. My understanding of this poem, language and thought the shape of the living environment that surrounds us (Burr, V 2003) pointed out that “language into being the first to be proposed, based on the experience of human living in the world” but also for the development of language, share their experiences. Burr brought put forward another view, because “the language itself provides a structured way of the world to our experience.” In other significant cultural and linguistic differences, for example, other living creatures on earth have a living environment and language of expression Jiugen is simply not the same as human beings, and even they may not have communication skills.
During the Lecture and Seminar
When in seminars I always copy what is written on the whiteboard this ensures that I understand everything and also gives me a reference copy in the future. After the seminar, I usually sum up my notes at home to understand the rapid return to the case whenever necessary. Since my mother tongue is not English I tend to spend more time than others in the revisions. Lecturers in modern everyday life will teach in a simple. It is in this important module, there are some ideas I found challenging. I will pay much attention to those not incorporated into textbooks, such as the author’s name, suggesting the details.
- Lecture 1: Overview and Module Organization (05.10.09)
- Lecture 2: Introducing concepts and language (12.10.09)
- Seminar 1B: “Oh I can’t get on with Bill”1 (19.10.09)
There are some important points in my discussion.
- A western concept
- Actions are seen as the result of characteristics
- People are knowable, manageable and predictable
Question- Has anyone ever seen a personality? Are you the same person that you were yesterday?
In the west, we extend this logic to groups (organizations and teams), constructs (markets and cultures) and concepts (facts and information)
Question-What do we mean by positioning?
- Positioning starts the discussion of a person from a different place
- Positions are treated as if constructed concerning identity resources such as
- Other people
- Social norms
Question-If no laws are governing which identity resources to use?
- People will enact multiple positions
- And their actions will be sensible concerning those positions
Identities are formed in ongoing relations and treated as negotiable
Question-What are the implications?
- Is she lazy?
- Is he boring?
The two statements above imply a fixed personality and seriously limit any possibility of moving the relationship forward
Question-Why should I care?
Because some of the taken for granted that you live with and never question can lead to frustration and anxiety
Question-How a relationship could change if you start by assuming she is ‘being’ lazy, and he is ‘being’ boring?
- Lecture 3: Power (16.11.09)
- Seminar 3A: Science and Social Constructions
There are some important points with my discussion, they include;
- Political Action and Power
- A relational consideration of the role of power in organizational change.
- Conventional treatments of Power
- Power is seen as the possession of individuals or organizations and the result of their
- attributes (Gergen describes this as ‘power over’) Power Bases (knowledge bases) e.g. expertise, legitimate, access to resources
- French and Raven, Morgan, Pfeffer Lukes and his 3 dimensions of power
- A relational alternative with contributions from;
- Discourses and the Common Sense
- Contribution of Michel Foucault
- Gergen’s act/supplement relations
- Gergen’s act/supplement relations
- Seminar 4A: Recap and a look at last year’s portfolios (30.11.09)
- Lecture 5: Relational approaches (18.01.10)
- Seminar 5B: The case of Jim Bristow – graduate employee
Where have we got to?
Problems with conventional approaches to change
- Subject-object relations
- real world
- the world remains as it is
- Reality does not die
- Emphasis on what can be known
- Limited use of power
- identification of problem
- analysis of causes
- analysis of possible solutions
- appreciating the best of what is
- envisioning what might be
- dialoguing what should be
- innovating what will be
- Seminar 6B: Organizational Storytelling (01.02.10)
- Seminar 7A: In-depth look and marking of last year’s portfolios (08.02.10)
This point is all of from Tina Bass‘s PPT where it is more clear and can be understood better.
Political power is present in organizations; it is used to influence decisions and interests. Under certain power comparisons, the subject of the political power has restrictive power for the society and other organizations (Neal & Tansey, 2010, p. 33). The subject of political power has a certain restrictive ability and power for the object of the political power or action, which is embodied in the political process of realizing some principles or interests of the subject of the political action or power. It is widely believed that political power is a special embodiment of power in the political field.
The common concept of political power mainly consists of the following elements;
Firstly the subject of the political power is named after by the role which in its active position or dominant condition. There is no denying that the role which is positive or dominated by others is the object of the political power or action. Generally speaking, the subject of political power is mainly the state and the subject of the political power of a company or an enterprise is the general manager or ordinary manager. However, according to the common sense of political power, the subject and the object can be changed.
Secondly, political power has its aims and interests. It is accepted that the subject of the political power or action is to realize the aim or target of the subject. And the aim is mainly interest and value which is expressed in various aspects and possesses the fundamental significance for the subject of the political power or action (Papadopoulos, 2009, p. 951). The aim constructs the internal driving force of the political power dominating the subject’s awareness of the political power to obtain the interest and value that the subject aims to get.
Thirdly the political power has a kind of force that can influence the decisions of people together. As we know, the dominant trait of political power can be aggression by abusive power or can be expressed by the law of the country or the principles or rules of the company, or by the political order and the punishment and prize of the company. In summary political power can carry out punishment not only by fortune but also by people’s belief in something (Hoddie, 2009/2010, p. 725). More detailed e.g. the manager of a company can also make good use of the consulting knowledge and competence to take better control of the management in their workplace. However with the development of the social life and other organizational patterns, some form of Social Relational Theory. Hence the paper aims to explore this problem and the extent to which these new understandings could assist the subject of political power.
Social Relational Theory
Social relational theory connotes that disparate people form a kind of relationship in the process of production and co-existence. The social relationship can be divided into two categories, namely the materialized social relationship and idealized social relationship. Of the two categories, a productive relationship is the most basic and dominant relationship in all relationships. The materialized relationship means that people from a mutual relationship are in the process of production. The productive relationship dominates a kind of aspect of the productive relationships that constitutes a certain social-economic basis. The idealized relationship denotes that a certain productive relationship decides other social relationships such as political relation, legal relation, ethical relation which constitute a certain high level of the society’s interaction. There is no doubt that social relationship covers up all kinds of fields in social life. It is can be seen everywhere and can be found in every corner. We can say that each saying and each action of a human being cannot live without the category of social relation (Newman, 2009, p. 539).
Marx even pointed that the nature of human beings is the sum of all relations which denotes that the social relation originates from a human being. The contact among people enhances the kinds of complex relations which are known as social relations (Jeannot, 2010, p. 214). From the relation between the couple, social relation is composed of the relation between individuals, the relation between individual and the community. It can also be the relations among communities, relations between the community and the state. As we also know, a company is a small group, which consists of a variety of relations. From the perspective of relations, social relation involves an array of aspects such as economic relation, political relation and legal relation. Hence every decision and each order will be undoubtedly dealt with depending on social relationships which can also be applied in a company (Koc-Menard, 2009, p. 357).
The relation between the political power of a manager and the social relations Political power of a manager in a company is great and the manager can use power independently. There are three sources of the political power of the manager of a company. The first source of political power is regulated by law, the second is the rules and regulations of the company, and the third is empowered by the board of directors. For example, the legal political powers of the manager are as follows;
- Be responsible for the production and operation of the company and carry out decisions of the board of directors
- Organize and carry out the running plan of the company and make the decision of investment
- Draw up the internal management setup of the company
- Draft the basic management system of the company
- Make the specific regulations of the company
- Be responsible for recruiting human resources and be in charge of vice manager and people who are responsible for finance
- Be responsible for other political power or actions empowered by the rules or regulations of the company and by the board of directors
If we say a person has great power, the person is said to have absolute power for the resources of the field. In a unit, the general manager is in charge of the political power of the resources of the whole company which consists of salary, good environment, good work positions, prizes, bonus and special purpose vehicle. According to the observed relationship of political power and social relation we can see that political power is controlled by people and the emergence of social relationships is because of a human being. There is no doubt that the use of political power is affected by the social relation in the company For example if the manager is a good friend of an ordinary colleague the use of a special purpose vehicle may be this ordinary colleague who may not have good performance in the daily work life. another example is when a manager of a company arranges his or her relative in an important position of the company, and an annual bonus of the company will be given to this relative, a better environment of the company will also be given to this relative, there will undoubtedly emerge a kind of mess and disorder, which will in turn influences the total operation of the company and order of the company management of the company.
From the theoretical perspective, we should not abuse political power or carry out political activities. However, in practice, no one denies the fact that people would like to choose friends or relatives as partners and as the beneficial party which is also very natural in people’s minds. Hence, there is a kind of phenomenon that in an array of units or companies there are a bunch of friends or relatives working. It is known to us all that the social-relational net is very deep. If a small company or a private firm has many relatives working there, it may become a centre of power abuse. Which is to run counter to the modern management system hence, the social relation challenges the political power of the manager. How to change this condition?
No one doubts that we should adopt an array of measures ranging from law to regulations to prevent and stop the fact that the social relation challenges the political power or action from developing. There are several conditions to improve the phenomenon, which are as follows;
- Firstly, people say that excellent managers are the core of the business world. The first trait that the manager should possess is good characteristics which is the coveted thing of the successful manager
- Secondly, a successful manager is the deciding role of the company. Credit is the core of the business circle. The manager should have these kinds of traits to attach more importance to the term of social-relational theory. And what the manager needs is to better understand the disadvantages of the social-relational theory
- Thirdly the manager should set up good and elegant career ethnic. No one denies that the professional manager of a company should be responsible for the safety, progress, economic development and good benefits of the company.
Some people say that social relation is the enemy of political power. The conscience of the manager in a company is the real coordinator of the political power. It is believed that if the manager of a company obeys the market principles and abuse the political power will undoubtedly bring loss and negative effects to the company and in turn to society.
It is widely accepted that the manager should not only be in charge of the company but also the society. The condition which can harm the society and company’s benefits is the last choice that the manager of a company should choose. A successful manager should be a successful person and have good ethnicity to make great benefits for the company. The abuse of political power will undoubtedly cause disorder and mess of the company Hence the manager of a company should be fostering a kind of sense of the disadvantage of abuse of the political power.
The social relation is developed with the advancing of human beings; the world is a humane society especially the developing country attaches more importance to the social relation. It is widely believed that the existence of everything is necessary; it also applies in the case of social relations. If we say that the social relation prevents the society or the company from developing and the social relation is bad for the society or the company, we would be wrong. Human beings are the producers in society which is attributed to a lot of human traits and where people get together in harmony. Hence we can say that social relationship is an important role in the development of society. However, if the social relation is attached too much importance such as when carrying out political power or action the manager or the head of the company has no choice. This puts too much on the term of the social relation and ignores the regular ethnicity of the manager which will prevent the development of the company and harm the interests of other colleagues.
In summary, the paper finds that the social relation is suitable for society However social relation challenges the use of political power and therefore people who control the absolute power should pay more attention to the fact. And people advocate that the subject of political power has a certain restrictive ability and power for the object of the political power or action which is embodied in the political process of realizing some principles or interests of the subject of the political action or power. When carrying out political actions, the interests of other people should also be taken into consideration.
Corporate vertical command and control have been considered to be the best ways to solve many of the daily affairs of the organization. The chairman of Toyota who visited a reputed home appliance company said:
“The management of your company gave me a good feeling. It has already had distinctive features of ‘top-down’ implementation of the system and it is also delicate and special However, from the trend of knowledge times, there is no denying that the company should consider the bottom-up administrative management” (Grundke, 2010, p. 662).
The vertical management style of the organization adapts to modern enterprise management concepts. This article first introduces the changeable vertical management approach from ancient to now. The main part of this essay focuses on the advanced concepts by citing several successful examples. It also introduces some of the different concepts of the people from different countries and gives some suggestions for the current management methods. Lastly, it will make a final summary for this essay.
Importance of Management Concepts
With the changing times, the organizational structure has gradually evolved from top-down power and bottom-up report to top-down targets and bottom-up dynamics (Forelle, 2010). The organizational form has changed from the linear system to the line functions of the system the staff are not only users of “thought”, but also the creators. The staff should not only be the followers of the “instructions”, but also be the people who identify and solve problems. Staff should change the role of screws and gears in the engine. The “top-down” management model should be used to change. The concept of Siemens is “putting the staff into the entire production process”, while one of Toyota’s management features considers the employee as ultimately responsible for their posts. The members of Self-management teams and groups should be responsible for inventory planning, materials planning, personnel arrangements, production targets and product quality in the implementation of the process. In this way, it will present a new pattern of “down cycle, blend run” in the organization and give the organization a new vitality (McCormick, 2010, p. 8).
In today’s instant success of morals, implementation of top-down command and control is of particular importance. Everybody should stop and think carefully about the corporate culture, values, etc. it should only promote active participation in and strengthen the organization from the leadership before mobilizing the workers to participate in this activity to get to inspire them. In addition, to actively participate in and promote leadership, the leadership of personal behaviour, words and style of temperament, professional diligence, honesty, dealing with others is more important for the top-down implementation of the corporate philosophy of education. As a representative of the main leader of this sector, it stands for the image of the company. If the leader conceals, corrupts and degenerates the department must be headed for a complete mess, dead, down fool, and economic downturns. Even if he only sees something with one eye, engages in the trick treachery, as well as engages in small groups of a clique, legalistic obstinacy, etc. It can also cause gentleman silence, talent emigrated, and sector stagnated, management confusion, inefficiency and infighting, Mausoleum. He might make “a little” harsh points on the person and do not understand clearly hastily release views and decision-making (Anonymous, 2009, p. 805). He was usually strict with his subordinates and the general staff. There is some unfair distribution on staff. For example, the manager of the company may be unequal on the matter of salary, which will undoubtedly lead to a great deal of mess in the company and accordingly the heart of the staff and the mind of the staff may also be very passive which will result in the decrease of production unstable quality bad performance of the concerned department and the poor image. Hence, it is very important to improve the behavior and action of the manager and we can see that the administrative approach is very important in the management of the company.
Chairman of Lenovo Group ever said
“The newly established company used a ‘top-down’ method of leadership and management team, which is what we call ‘prescriptive’ approach; when we entered into the ’90s, with a number of high-quality young men coming into the company, I changed the previous prescriptive way to the so-called ‘directive’ approach; after 1995, I have gradually beginning changing the working method into the participate way, which connotes that the subordinate staff put forward decision and I provide advice. Hence, the staff surrounding me begins to possess a very large stage, on which the staff can decide by themselves, and my function becomes a film-maker from a director” (Anonymous, 2009, p. 805)
Different countries have a different view to the top-down management style regime. In the Western capitalist countries, the state power is accustomed to implementing the separation of powers which is similar to the functions of straight line of a modern enterprise system. While in the socialist countries the countries implement one-party rule which is similar to straight line of the modern enterprise system, for they think that a straight-line function of the system is slow in response to the external environmental changes, departments are lack of horizontal coordination among organizations are lack of innovation and the system has limited knowledge of organizational goals and other gaps. However, the advantages of linear systems are: relatively simple structure, accountability and order reunification. The disadvantage of the system is that it is lack of professional management since there was no division of labor, and the system requests that the executive responsible person must be proficient in a variety of knowledge and handle a number of operational issues personally.
The Implementation of Responsibilities
Dynamic organization must have the powers and responsibilities to the hands of each of the various positions especially the bottom rather than float on top even not concentrate in the hands of an individual. It shifts the responsibility from the hands of the leadership together with the power and confidence with the return to employees. Employees who decide to take responsibility for their work will first look if the organization gives their enough trust. Siemens on the one hand implements a liberal-oriented authorization management system in the middle and senior management; on the other hand a small organization that is directed by the program and group and is set up in line with global network, customer task and product traits among the staff. The organization pattern can not only solve the actual problems of the staff but also activate huge working enthusiasm. There is no doubt that in the book of “Siemens Communications” there is a saying that people are committed to simplifying the hierarchy and accordingly a kind of responsibility is brought. Hence, each person has a larger freedom to exert efforts to accomplish his or her task.
Open Thought Channel
Bill Pollard in his “soul of the enterprise” wrote: “Staff is not just ‘a pair of hands’, but a group who has thought and creative, they can take the initiative to change the various aspects of business”. Needless to say, the things which promote the development of productive forces most from the first line of the innovative minds; an organization’s decline are also beginning from the ideological rigidity of the employee. Thus, one of the tasks of modern organization is to activate the staff’s thinking, dynamic, open to speak up and build a career filled with imagination platform so that it will allow employees to be thoughtful practitioners (Liu, 2009, p. 1565). General Electric had been a long stick to imprisonment-style management and employees are expected only as “hard work, tight-lipped person”. Under Jack Welch’s initiative, GE proposed a bottom-up management style; its basic approach is as follows:
- To encourage staff share their insights in a collaborative corporate culture;
- To give front-line staff more responsibilities and greater rights;
- Eradication waste, unreasonable and repeated link of the procedure;
- To break the obstacles which the free exchange of ideas and results can exchange in the restricted area.
Let Employees take the Initiative Up
The traditional management pattern respect for authority and control of management and the concepts of modern management which require employees to take the initiative themselves. Elegant Poetry Kazuo Inamori who was known as “management of the St.” talked about the transparency of business law of Sony and indicated that the operators must be transparent, for example, how many goods they set in the current month, how much later than planned, how much the profit is, how to use the expenditure and so on. Even the employees in the bottom positions should be clearly aware of this. This will make the staff feel valued while it is also subjected to constraint the action of the middle and senior management personnel in transparent in order to initiate heart rooted in employee motivation (Broughton, 2010).
“Mobilized” means a passive, and “activeness” means a sense of responsibility. Seoul of the Republic of South Korea has a factory in order to train workers the sense of ownership and responsibility. From 1983 onwards, the introduction of a unique management system that the company allows workers to take turns each week as “one-day director.” Every Wednesday the specific employee who is the director of the week begins to work at 9:00 am to listen to a brief report from the various departments. Then, according to the problems reflected by each department the real director of the company proposes to first concentrate on solving one or two things. With questions the staff who works as the director of the company that day accompanied by the real director of the company goes too each workshop or each department to inspect work. The staff who works as the director of the company that day has the power of dealing with documents and makes up a detailed report of the day and puts forward advices for dealing with the serious problems of the day, and at last the one-day director passes around the contents. Hence, the staff’s thinking will go beyond the narrow mind which is only centred on his or her position, his or her eyesight is expanded, his or her awareness is stretched and his or her potentiality may also be expanded. Of course, there are other approaches such as the power-sharing, which allows the staff to have appropriate stock of the company and satisfies the belongingness of the staff and inspires the active sense of his or her inner heart.
The goals of the top-down organizational structure of a modern enterprise, the activeness of the bottom-up structure and the supervision of each department make the daily management become more ordered. No matter which country and no matter which organization the communication and feedback of those two types of top-down and bottom-up are needed. The top-down control makes the company has a clear aim and direction. Hence, the paper introduces that with the changing of times the top-down management is also witnessing great change. The paper also lists a bunch of examples, such as the differences in the country’s political power. The paper also brings forward some advice for controlling the company.
Definition of Managing Change
Managing change means co-coordinating a number of activities and inter-relationships which enable the organization to survive, and benefit from, the process of change. A major challenge is to achieve the right balance between the short-term pressure for change and longer-term corporate goals.
Change is inherent in contemporary organizational experience and its management is not only critical to organizational success and survival but is also at the crux of the field of organization development. Knowledge of the fundamental aspects of change is defined in terms of a person’s understanding of individual responses to change and the general nature of change. Knowledge of the change process is determined by a person’s understanding of three key processes:
- Planning change
- Managing change (both the “people” side and the “organization” side)
- Evaluating change
It should be noted that each dimension builds on those below it, in other words knowledge of the fundamental aspects of change is critical to the process of planning, managing, and evaluating change.
My Opinions of Managing Strategic Change
Breaking down the several words we can say managing is ‘the process during which the changes of an organization are implemented in a controlled manner by following a pre-defined framework/model with. To some extent, there are some reasonable modifications’. And change is transforming ‘from a current state to a desired future state.
It is widely accepted that change depends on contextual features such as scope, time, preservation, power, diversity, readiness, capability and capacity. When encountering managing change companies would like to simplify organizations to improve high efficiency and enhance the responding speed to the external environment. Firms that conduct managing change will ask their employees to take part in important decisions and firms set up salaries according to work performance of employees. Companies can actively carry out managing change. However, no one denies that almost every change management mechanism has similar flowing processes and targets.
The module enhances my learning experience in the whole university which is definitely a good education module. The teaching style of Tina Bass has been of great help, she uses a practical approach to communication with students, often said that some of the typical life examples. In Advance career development Tina Bass is my teacher. This module has a different approach to change management and is really enjoyable.
Because my standard of English is quite low, there are quite a large number of new words I learnt in this module. I had the opportunity to learn many poems and also understand the concepts.
Social Constructivism Gergen thought to identify and Boerne formed the theoretical basis for this module. I had never studied the social construction approach but now I know that social Constructionism is a powerful and growing influence of psychology. The academic literature consists of a variety of methods, theories and viewpoints. The current challenges of social differentiation are a wide range of knowledge and learning there are many models of traditional knowledge. Nevertheless, they have to work in the social world of the significance of the shape of our acts.
This course open up my ideas, it also gave me the idea of inspiration and adaptation. A panel discussion is an interesting process although there are challenges, they face in their work and stimulate thinking in the same manner.
Andrew, McCormick, (2010). Labor picks supporter ideas for election push. P. 8.
Anonymous, (2009). ‘Research and Markets; European Administrative Law; Top Down and Bottom Up Contains the Proceedings of the Conference Held on 3 June 2009’, Business & Finance Week. p. 805.
Charles, Forelle, (2010). ‘EU’s Top-Down Crisis; Leadership Confusion Accompanies Obama’s Decision to Skip Talks’, Wall Street Journal (Online).
Georgios, Papadopos, (2009) ‘Between Rules and Power: Money as an Institution Sanctioned by Political Authority’, Journal of Economic Issues, 43(4) p. 951.
Mark, Neal, & Richard Tansey, (2010). ‘The dynamics of effective corrupt leadership: Lessons from Rafik Hariri’s political career in Lebanon.’ Leadership Quarterly. 21(1) p. 33.
Matthew, Hoddie, (2009/2010). ‘Driving Democracy: Do Power-Sharing Institutions Work?’ Political Science Quarterly. 124(4) p. 725.
Peter, Grundke, (2010). ‘Top-down approaches for integrated risk management: How accurate are they?’ European Journal of Operational Research. 203(3) p. 662.
Philip, Delves Broughton, (2010). ‘More than a Paycheck; Workers are more efficient, loyal and creative when they feel a sense of purpose-when work has meaning’ Wall Street Journal.
Sergio, Koc-Menard, (2009) ‘Team performance in negotiation: a relational approach’, Team Performance Management, 15(7/8) p. 357.
Shaoying, Liu, (2009). ‘Integrating top-down and scenario-based methods for constructing software specifications.’ Information and Software Technology. 51(11) p. 1565.
Susan, Newman, (2009). ‘Financialization and Changes in the Social Relations along Commodity Chains: The Case of Coffee’, Review of Radical Political Economics. 41(4) p. 539.
Tom, Jeannot, (2010). ‘The enduring significance of the thought of Karl Marx.’ International Journal of Social Economics. 37(3) p. 214.