Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner

Musical Intelligence: The ability to perceive, transform, and express musical forms (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). Interactive music lessons will help develop musical skills and facilitate learning music in the future. One of the activities aimed at boosting musical intelligence is based on the well-known children’s lullaby “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” (Prodigies Music, 2015). The song uses six notes (C, D, E, F, G, A) and has simple lyrics. It is a good idea to utilize a piece of colorful sheet music, and bells as the connection between colors and notes make it easier for a child to remember and repeat the melody. A teacher can sing the song together with the children or ask them to watch the video and do the activities along with the presenter. Then, the audience is invited to scale degrees using the numbers written on the colorful bells. Such interactive lessons aim to teach children the basics of music and improve their musical skills.

Linguistic Intelligence: According to Derakhshan & Faribi (2015), it is the capacity of using a word effectively, whether orally or in writing (64). People with a high level of this intelligence face problems with speaking, writing, and reading less frequently. Alphabet Bingo Game is created to teach children to recognize and learn alphabet letters (Teaching Mama). A teacher or a parent should cut out the alphabet cards in advance and place them in a box (Teaching Mama). Then, they draw one card and name the letter to the children who should cover the spot on their board if they have that letter (Teaching Mama). The one who gets five in succession first wins. The next step is when an instructor says the words beginning with the letter. For instance, instead of saying “letter B,” one can call out “boat.” This activity helps to learn letters and words, contributing to linguistic intelligence.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The ability to use numbers effectively and reason well (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). This intelligence implies sensitivity to logical relationships and patterns. “Mancala” (Endless Games) is a funny way to teach children the basics of mathematics and develop logical skills. It is a strategy board game that can bring together the whole family. “Mancala” is played with small round objects like seeds, stones, or beans and rows of pits made in the earth or playing board. The goal of the game is to get as many of the opponent’s pieces as possible. This activity is useful for teaching elementary math concepts such as counting, subtraction, and addition.

Spatial Intelligence: The capacity to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). This intelligence allows a person to sense form, space, line, color, shape, and the relationship between these elements (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). Construction toys such as Lego Education (My XL World) can increase spatial intelligence in children. The constructor consists of colored plastic bricks that can be connected and assembled in different ways. By constructing buildings, vehicles, and robots, children explore the world around them and see the relationships between various elements. Lego not only boosts spatial intelligence but also increases imagination and teaches children to solve problems.

Existential Intelligence: This intelligence is based on the human tendency to ask fundamental questions of existence (Sotoudehnama et al., 2018). Creative puzzle games such as Puzzle Hunt help develop existential intelligence (Stanford University). First of all, an educator hides the pieces of an oversized puzzle separately in the classroom or outdoors. It is important to make some of them find hard and some easy. Then, the children should find the pieces and gather the puzzle. Make sure that every kid participates and finds at least one section. Last, explain how the small parts make one big picture, stressing that all elements are essential, and there cannot be extra ones. Solving puzzles is an enjoyable way to exercise this intelligence and teach students to ask existential questions as well as find answers to them.

Naturalist Intelligence: The ability to recognize and classify all varieties of flora and fauna as well as identify cultural artifacts (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). Birdwatching allows students to explore nature without interfering in it (Miller, 2020). This activity can be done through telescopes and binoculars, or without any special equipment. Wildlife observation teaches children to be patient, appreciate nature, and take responsibility for it. Birdwatching can provoke discussions, and it would be a good idea for educators to tell children interesting facts about birds, such as what they eat, and how they fly (Miller, 2020). Let the kids observe the wildlife around them at first and then make comments and ask questions. Remember that children can not only watch birds but also listen to them. As such, draw their attention to the difference in the call of each bird and ask them to describe these calls or even imitate them. Some birdwatchers make notes in a diary, so ask the students to write down the most exciting moments and facts that they learned during this activity.

Intrapersonal Intelligence: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively according to that knowledge (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). Intelligence involves understanding one’s strengths, weaknesses, desires, moods, and intentions (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). The Mood Tracker (Blissprinted) helps to understand one’s emotions better, developing intrapersonal intelligence. A student should fill it out in the evening, marking what emotions they experienced during the day. It allows a teacher or a parent to track a kid’s emotional state and prevent depression, anxiety, and other disorders. Moreover, students learn about their weak and strong sides and get an opportunity to recognize and deal with negative emotions. It takes a few minutes to fill out this mood tracker as it has a simple layout. It offers several choice options as well as blank pages to write down personal observations. A mood tracker is a tool that helps children understand the internal aspects of the self and to practice self-discipline (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015).

Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to understand another person’s feelings, moods, intentions, and motivations (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). Working in pairs and groups will teach children to interact with each other and become independent in the process of learning. Multiple activities encourage students to work in a team. Roll the ball is an exciting way to boost interpersonal intelligence, and it can be used during language classes (TeachingEnglish). The participants roll the ball to each other and say the appropriate sentence in a foreign language as they do it (TeachingEnglish). The activity has a question-answer pattern because the one who rolls the ball asks a question and the other answers it. The game allows children to increase cooperative skills and practice a foreign language.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Expertise in using one’s body to express ideas and feelings, and to solve problems (Derakhshan & Faribi, 2015). This intelligence includes such physical skills as coordination, flexibility, speed, and balance. Ball launch activities (Toddler Approved, 2019) can help playfully develop these skills. Some of the advantages of these games are that they do not require any special equipment and much space, so they can be played at home. The playing set is simple: cardboard box, colorful balls, markers, painter’s tape, paper, and plastic laundry baskets (Toddler Approved, 2019). First, label each basket with numbers from 1 to 10, or 1 to 5, and stick these paper labels onto the basket with painter’s tape (Toddler Approved, 2019). Then, ask the children to create a ramp from the cardboard box: it is a good way to train their problem-solving skills (Toddler Approved, 2019). Last, set up the baskets in front of the ball launch ramp – the playground is ready (Toddler Approved, 2019)! The goal is to throw the balls into the baskets and get the points. This game allows increasing bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, teaches children to work together to achieve a common goal, and exposes them to colors.


Blissprinted. Mood Tracker. (2020). Web.

Derakhshan, A., & Faribi, M. (2015). Multiple intelligences: Language learning and teaching. International Journal of English Linguistics, 5(4), 63.

Educube. Lego Education. Web.

Endless Games. Fun Board Game for Friends. Timeless Strategy Game. Classic Mancala. Web.

Miller, A. (2020). BirdWatching Magazine. Birdwatching with children. Web.

Prodigies Music, (2015). Twinkle twinkle little star music lesson. Web.

Puzzlehunt Image: Wikiwand. 2020, Web.

Sotoudehnama, E., Babazadeh, Z., & Nafisi, Z. (2018). The relationship between spiritual intelligence, multiple intelligences, and language learning strategies. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 10(21), 205-222.

SUMO. Stanford University. (2020). Puzzle hunts. Web.

TeachingEnglish. British Council. (2020). Working in pairs and groups. Web.

Thayer, A. (2020). Teaching Mama. Alphabet bingo game. Web.

Toddler Approved. (2019). Easy ball launch for kids. Web.

Twinkle Twinkle Little Star Image: Pinterest. Web.

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ChalkyPapers. "Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner." April 15, 2023.