Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Determination of the nature of knowledge that teachers require to integrate technology in the teaching process is the aim of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). It addresses the intricate and versatile character of teacher knowledge. Pedagogy, content and technology knowledge compose TPACK (Koehler, 2011).
Many children do not understand the operations of subtraction algorithms. The problems children have relate to inadequate understanding of the place value. Teachers have to explain this by use of tangible materials such as multi-base arithmetic blocks (MAB) (Treahy & Gurganus, 2010). However, the explanations that teachers give differ in quality. Teachers with a deeper understanding of the three forms of knowledge explore this concept meticulously.
Content and Pedagogical Knowledge
There is an eminent importance of concept knowledge applicable in teaching this idea. The teacher must have a deep understanding of elementary mathematics. He must be able to exhibit knowledge of the concepts of subtraction algorithms, and have the ability to deconstruct it to a set of main points. He must know the mathematical makeup and concepts of subtraction algorithms. Finally, he must have procedural knowledge and solution methods of tackling the problem.
Additionally, the teacher must have pedagogical knowledge. He should describe the purpose of studying to the children. He must know how to get and retain the concentration of children. He should be able to devise strategies that engage the children. Finally, he should have effective classroom techniques (Chick, Pham & Baker, 2006).
Students with unique needs can use digital technology to solve subtraction algorithm problems (Schmidt, Baran, Thompson, Mishra, Koehler & Shin, 2009). There are devices that allow students to use audio and touch technologies to solve arithmetic problems. In subtraction algorithms, the numbers are entered to produce a two dimensional graphical illustration of the problem to be solved. One such technology is the ViewPlus IVEO technology.
Chick, L., Pham, T & Baker, M. (2006). Probing Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons from the Case of the Subtraction Algorithm. Web.
Koehler, M. (2011). What is TPACK? Web.
Schmidt, A., Baran, E., Thompson, D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M & Shin, S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Pre-service Teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149.
Treahy, L & Gurganus, P (2010). Models for Special Needs Students. Teaching Children Mathematics, 16(8), 484-490.