Regardless of the fact that both conceptual and theoretical frameworks guide to research and provide the basis for the establishment of its credibility, there are differences between them. Thus, defined as “the specific theory or theories about aspects of human endeavor that can be useful to the study of events,” the theoretical framework is a research’s foundation that guides the researcher (Adam et al., 2018, p. 438). It helps avoid the deviation from the accepted theories’ confines for final academic contribution. In turn, a conceptual framework is a particular structure that is believed to explain the phenomenon’s progression in the most appropriate way (Adom et al., 2018). While a theory represents relationships between the phenomenon’s elements, the conceptual is an idea of how these relationships will be explored.
In general, instructional delivery may be regarded as the interaction between a teacher, a student, content, and specific knowledge and skills necessary for a student in collaboration with others. That is why it involves a teacher’s application of instructional strategies to interact and communicate with students concerning academic content and support their engagement. As a matter of fact, in 3rd grade, children are able to extend previously acquired reading skills to adapt to various purposes and audiences’ demands. They traditionally enjoy reading using multiple strategies to draw the text’s meaning, automatically use word identification methods, recognize the elements and structures of different texts, and are able to connect them critically. It is frequently believed that “reading as well as language competency are both the means and the end to educational achievement” (Mohammed & Amponsah, 2018, p. 273). However, there are particular factors that may lead to low reading levels, including a student’s individual characteristics that cause a lack of motivation and confidence to read in class.
That is why, for a competent educator, it is essential to create an atmosphere, or a climate, that will foster students’ critical reading skills and encourage their participation in cooperative learning. In other words, every student should feel like a member of the literacy learners’ community – he or she should feel that their individual needs are respected. In turn, providing the general curriculum, a teacher should consider students’ potential, learning styles, and individual features that impact academic progress.
The majority of curriculum theorists believed that even though education should meet social expectations, the design of the curriculum should be student-centered, addressing learners’ interests and needs. According to Franklin Bobbitt, who is regarded as the founder of modern curriculum theory, “because of this complexity of life itself, individual curricula should also be developed according to different situations, as supplement to the general curriculum” (Liu, 2017, p. 73). In other words, the theorists realized that no curriculum might be imposed upon all students for the achievement of equal results, and situations are diverse for individuals.
As previously mentioned, to address the needs of students with low reading levels, the student-centered curriculum design should be applied. It goes without saying that the application of only one strategy during the whole academic process is impossible. For instance, the delivery of new material requires a subject-centered approach. However, as a participation-focused curriculum model, the student-oriented curriculum encourages learners to demonstrate their abilities, find their passions, and follow individual paths in education. As a result, they will be able to perceive and understand the structure of knowledge instead of memorizing materials according to common standards.
Adom, D., Hussein, E. K., & Agyem, J. A. (2018). Theoretical and conceptual framework: Mandatory ingredients of a quality research [PDF]. International Journal of Scientific Research, 7(1), 438-441.
Liu, X. (2017). Did there exist two stages of Franklin Bobbitt’s curriculum theory? Educational Studies in Japan, 11, 71-81.
Mohammed, I., & Amponsah, O. (2018). Predominant factors contributing to low reading abilities of pupils at Elsie Lund Basic School in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. African Educational Research Journal, 6(4), 273-278.