Adult education was chosen as the topic discussed in my work. In the course of the study, the features of training of this age group were identified by the example of drawing up a particular course of coaching programs. In addition, the rapid development of science and technology requires a person to develop and adapt constantly. Therefore, I have considered the features of online and face-to-face training and the advantages of each type. Learning in the modern world is becoming an option but a necessity for existing in the new realities. Thus, conditions for self-education are created, and new views on educational processes appear.
First of all, two adult development theories were examined. Erik Erikson and Jeffrey Jensen Arnett emphasized these two theoretical approaches to describing adult development. Erikson’s theory saw development from the perspective of personality formation implies passing through particular crises. In other words, the decisions made by individuals at different times foster their development and allow classifying them accordingly (Syed & McLean, 2017). Of particular interest for the research was the study of the stage of middle maturity, since it is at this stage that the universal human path is realized and the person’s self-obsession is emphasized. This aspect is essential to take into account when forming an educational program for adults. Arnett’s theory concerns the lack of independence of appropriate age due and unwillingness to take responsibility to societal shifts (“What is emerging adulthood”, n.d.). The orientation of individuals on their personal goals arises from understanding the importance of education. Thus, the consideration of the population’s trends cannot be thoroughly examined when using a single model, and the inclusion of varying views allows the demonstration of a precise picture. Therefore, analysis of these two models can be beneficial in understanding the trends among the population and the formation of educational plans suitable to the changing environment.
In the conducted study, online course versus participating in a traditional classroom setting was compared, and the level of achievement and the measurable difference that would be needed to be addressed were examined. The traditional face-to-face lesson model is widely used in all educational institutions. However, the use of new technologies has contributed to the transition of lessons online. One of the main advantages of online learning is its prevalence and accessibility. So, it can be beneficial for the population that may be geographically isolated and not have the advantage of living close to a learning facility.
One of the main downsides of online education is that communication with learners will be entirely electronic. Thus, Goh & Wen (2020) emphasized that considering the faceless nature of online discussion forums, work expectations may differ from reality due to miscommunication. The other vital factor is the level of computer literacy of the participants in the online class. To work around this problem, you need to create programs that are as clear and easy to use as possible. Despite this, online training gives you the opportunity to improve knowledge, regardless of location.
Then I explored how to properly form an educational training plan to achieve the best results. Starting with a series of questions is crucial to help in recognizing the current circumstances and understanding the training objective. Researches showed that it is essential to create a training model during design by developing a blueprint for the training course and making the model easily comprehensible with other people involved in the training (Villarroel et al., 2018). The design phase serves as a base for the contents; however, adding more detailed descriptions are essential to polish the training course. Furthermore, testing the course is not brushing through it but an orderly check of the course accuracy based on its contents (Uzunboylu & Koşucu, 2017). Expected outcomes of the course, its duration, and its effectiveness are vital aspects to be considered before implementing the course. I also concluded that a pilot course before releasing the entire contents is essential in preventing future failures. This measure will help to analyze in advance and remove possible difficulties and misunderstandings; for example, when drawing up a training course, you need to see whether the load meets the physical capabilities of adults.
The ADDIE model was reviewed in order to get more satisfactory results in training planning. This model acts as a dynamic and sequential process used during instructional design and training development. Recently, it has more and more critics who say that this model does not always allow to quickly respond to development needs (Hill & Jordan, 2018). However, this learning model makes it possible to analyze all the information by observing students’ reaction, learning process, and behaviour, for example, an analysis of how adults respond to various exercises in a training course. This will help to make the correct conclusions and adapt to the students. It also provides criticism and feedback for further improvement.
The relevance of the development of a unique training course is due to the state of health of the modern general population. There is a higher rate of cardiovascular disease prevalence and obesity among adults in the United States, caused by a lack of healthy lifestyles, such as regular physical exercise (Hales et al., 2017). Adults experience challenges to begin and maintain exercising on regular routines as they become of age. The development of a home workout training plan makes exercising more fun as people can spend less time indoors to engage in different activities. Based on individual characteristics, it is necessary to comprehensively form an appropriate plan for each adult, taking into account the predicted results and individual development.
There is also sufficient evidence that physical exercise reduces healthcare concerns among adults. Researchers suggest that regular exercise helps strengthen the muscles and cardiorespiratory organs (Fiuza-Luces et al., 2018). Adults participating in the program should be capable of performing the workout skills at home. To achieve the best results in this program, online training can be applied. Thus, adults will not need to leave their place of residence or enter a public hall, leading to stressful situations. The emergence of feelings of insecurity can contribute to a decrease in motivation.
Thus, the correct and thought-out formation of the educational plan is essential. The ADDIE model sets the goal of creating a structured method of training programmes. Such type of education is necessary when conducting online training for adults. This new way of acquiring new knowledge is driven by greater motivation, as it meets the needs of students. At the centre of educational approaches should be the harmonious and conscious development of an already established personality and not the adaptation of a person to the requirements of institutions, companies or the state.
Fiuza-Luces, C., Santos-Lozano, A., Joyner, M., Carrera-Bastos, P., Picazo, O., Zugaza, J. L.,… & Lucia, A. (2018). Exercise benefits in cardiovascular disease: beyond attenuation of traditional risk factors. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 15(12), 731-743.
Goh, E., & Wen, J. (2020). Applying the technology acceptance model to understand hospitality management students’ intentions to use electronic discussion boards as a learning tool. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 1-13.
Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 288.
Hill, J., & Jordan, L. (2018). 3.1 The ADDIE Model/Planning an Online Course. Experiential Learning in Instructional Design and Technology. Pressbooks.
Orenstein, G., & Lewis, L. (2020). Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. StatPearls. Web.
Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. The SAGE Encyclopaedia of Intellectual and Developmental Disorders. Web.
Uzunboylu, H., & Koşucu, E. (2017). Comparison and evaluation of Seels & Glasgow and Addie instructional design model. International Journal of Science and Research, 73(6), 98-112.
Villarroel, V., Bloxham, S., Bruna, D., Bruna, C., & Herrera-Seda, C. (2018). Authentic assessment: Creating a blueprint for course design. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(5), 840-854.
What is emerging adulthood. (n.d.). The University of New Hampshire. Web.