Several taxonomies have been developed to guide education objectives and processes. These taxonomies provide a framework that categorizes educational goals from simpler to complex. Several theoretical frameworks guide learners. The main aim of this was to build good and efficient curricula. Objectives of education have been classified into several domains (Anderson and Lauren, 1994).
This is the main aspect of a cognitive domain in taxonomy is knowledge. It involves understanding, recalling data, application and synthesis. The specifics of this domain can be obtained by inculcating cognitive ability to write, name, identify, recall, record, match, label and define information during learning. This ensures that learners have a memory that can recollect basic concepts and facts previously learned. Building education curricula also requires learners to know handling conventions, terminologies, classifications and trends effectively (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
This refers to the skill of the learner. These skills are naturalization ability and the development of precision. It also involves the ability to imitate and manipulate. As a precision measure, a learner should be able to independently execute skills reliably. One should be able to imitate or replicate others’ actions while teaching (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Comprehension is the learner’s ability to recognize, generalize, describe, show, rewrite, and conclude. This ensures that learners develop a deep understanding. The application requires learners to model, recognize, practice, experiment and apply what has been thought to solve problems. Analysis requires learners to carefully look into the components of the information and understand their principles and relationships. This prevents conjecture. Evaluation enables learners to build criteria for evaluating ideas and pinions correctly (Anderson and Lauren, 1994).
This is the ability to react well to several issues. Learning is effective when receiving, characterizing, responding, valuing and organization are well integrated. Psychomotor refers to individuals’ behaviours. One should be physically and mentally stable. There should be a proper use of mechanisms and adaptations.
New taxonomy involves self-system and cognitive systems. Remembering comes first. Learners should be able to recall all the information learned. This includes values, facts, and definitions (Anderson and Lauren, 1994).
To build a good understanding, a learner should be able to convert information into symbols or words which are familiar to the mind. This includes charts, poems, summaries, outlines, models, maps and graphs. It could be theoretical, comparative or cause-effect. Through this, a student can explain, conclude, discuss, associate and summarize information. The application requires a student to expend their theoretical knowledge to illustrate, hypothesize, develop, choose, change, manipulate, organize, solve, and relate what has been learned to real-life situations (Keating, 2003).
Another component is analysis. This is where the learner breaks down the process of communication into several parts. Similarities and differences are then drawn and made explicit. The mechanism of analyzing these parts involves the use of diagrams maps, outlines, drawing parallels, discrimination, distinguishing, comparing and contrasting. Lastly is evaluation. Learners should be able to identify what is right and wrong. This can be done by setting up standards parallel to the ideas (Keating, 2003).
These theoretical frameworks ensure proper communication among educators. This builds curricula that aid the learning process. Curricula development becomes a piece of cake when these frameworks are followed (Anderson and Lauren, 1994).
Anderson, W., & Lauren, S. (1994). Bloom’s Taxonomy: A Forty-Year Retrospective. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.
Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, A. (2001). Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.
Keating, S. (2003). Curricula Development and Evaluation in Nursing. New York: Springer Company.