Compare and Contrast: The Effects of Integrated Science

Compare and contrast essay is one of the most important types of writing paper which develops students’ critical and analyzing skills. Compare and contrast essays help students correctly define the similarities and differences of many academic theories and definitions. This example of paper is a complicated type that allows creating many professional and academic writings. Moreover, some researchers believe that the provision of comparative and distinctive aspects of a topic or article has the most effective influence on students whose studies are oriented on these specific topics (Clark, et al, 2021). Every writer wants to provide readers with a broad understanding of their chosen topic and not mix two different topics. In this case, the structure of compare and contrast essays plays a huge role.

Professionals define two main types of compare and contrast essays as ‘block’ and ‘point-by-point’. In the ‘point-by-point’ structure similarity or difference of every point is followed by each other, and the two main ideas of the essay are described immediately in the first paragraph (Clark, et al, 2021). ‘Point-by point’ structure is usually easy for readers as chosen topics for comparing and contrasting are joined together in one paragraph, and in the case of long essays, it helps not to lose the paper’s main point. This type of structure also makes essay writing more convenient as writers stay concentrated for a long time.

‘Block’ structure presents all information about the first topic and compares and contrasts it to the following subjects. This type of structure is more complicated than ‘point-by-point’ because it makes readers and writers confused about the essay’s idea (Clark, et al, 2021). However, it is applicable for short essays and articles that do not carry extra information. It usually confuses students who start writing compare and contrast essays in ‘block’ style as they can describe everything about topic A and then forget to compare and contrast with topic B. To avoid this problem, advanced writers always include related phrases like “in contrast to,” “in comparison with.”

Both structures are popular among essay writers, and each makes any essay easy to read. I believe that compare and contrast essays are one of the clearest types of paper for readers and writers, and I would use both structures in my assignments. I could use a ‘Point-by-point’ structure for long and complicated essays, and ‘block’ style would be most useful in short and straightforward assignments.

Many methods help writers improve their spelling, and different specialists define the most effective according to their experiences. For instance, according to Treiman (2018), one of the most important rules to improve spelling skills are mnemonic use, remembrance of commonly misspelled words, the pronouncement of new words aloud. Also, adherence to basic guidelines, use of patterns, and practice of “trace, copy and recall” method play a huge part in developing spelling skill.

Some rare and long words might be difficult to remember, and the use of mnemonics might make the process of memorizing easier. Mnemonics’ main mission is to turn words or phrases into pictures, music, or video and allow the human’s brain to visualize complicated words. Moreover, an abbreviation is included in the mnemonic method, and the creation of short associations helps to improve spelling skills. Logical associations also help to remember the spelling of new words easier. For example, the word “warehouse” consists of two well-known words, “ware” and “house.”

Learning words that are always misspelled even by native speakers can increase the level of spelling skill. Such difficult spellings are located in dictionaries, Google and YouTube. There are many misspelled words that are important in everyday use, and understanding the spelling rule becomes a crucial part of clear and grammatical spelling. The most common words which many people misspell are “believe,” “foreign,” “earthquake,” “equipment.” Everyday writing practice can make the memorizing process quicker and help to expand the vocabulary.

Many young children usually make mistakes in spelling, and they are taught to say complicated words aloud and slowly, then write them down. Adults can also practice this method to improve spelling skills and remember more unknown words. However, this method does not work with all words such as “ballet” and “picture” sound differently from their spellings. This method is useful when writers mix spellings of approximately the same words. For instance, such words as “pray” and “pay” have approximately the same spelling but sound differently. Consequently, to be sure that each word is written and used correctly by writers, they can pronounce them aloud every time they are unsure of the spelling.

A basic understanding and adherence to rules of suffixes and prefixes make spelling skills more advanced, and fewer words become misunderstood. For example, such prefixes as re- change the word’s meaning, and it usually says to do something again. One example is the word ‘rewrite’, which means that a writer should change existing paper material and make it more flourish or be more specific about the chosen topic. Highly educated writers always keep in mind suffixes, and grammatically correct texts include words with the use of suffixes. For instance, endings -s and -es make nouns plural. Moreover, suffixes create different parts of speech which make an essay look professional and writers more advanced.

The use of patterns in the improvement of spelling skills is also one of the most important methods that every writer should consider. When reading a magazine or book, readers and writers can underline words that are the same in spelling or meaning. It is easy to find the rule that creates these close spellings by grouping similar words, and the memorizing process becomes quicker. Cognitive energy aimed at studying the originality of word creation makes the human brain work more efficiently. While using this method, the information received from outside sources remains for a long time.

The sixth useful method in learning spelling is “trace, copy and recall,” which requires writers to use paper and write down notes for a better result. In the first column called “trace” the writer should spell chosen word slowly and correctly to start remembering it. The second column named “copy” does the same function as “trace,” and it helps make the brain work efficiently in memorizing new words. The third column, called “recall” is on the other side of the paper, and when the writer’s mind is fresh, he can flip the paper and recall this new word (Treiman, 2018). If a new word is too complicated, writers can include it in the first two columns many times before they become sure that they completely understand the spelling of a new word.

All methods aimed to improve spelling are useful, and each of them helps me in the development of this skill. However, understanding of mnemonic method helps me to remember the spellings of new words quicker. Also, when I pronounce every unknown word aloud, I become more confident in spelling, and my spelling skill becomes more progressive. Many methods influence spelling ability, and I would try more to become broadminded in writing.

Prayer in Schools

Payers in schools have never been forbidden despite all existing myths, and students can still pray alone or in groups. Supreme Court recognizes the existence of different cultures and allows prayer in all schools (Stern & Shillitoe, 2019). However, there are still two opposite opinions, and some people are acting in favor of prayers, and some are against them. Students and teachers usually have different opinions, which are the basis for the disagreement between these groups.

Different schools in the USA differ by the percentage of international students and those indigenous students who adhere to various religions. Devotion to certain internal school rules usually results in a compromise between teachers, students, and their parents. However, not all schools accept the prayers of both students and teachers, which can cause a conflict. On the one hand, students and teachers believe that religion is one of the most important parts of human life, and it gave birth to the existence of modern society. On the other hand, some religions require prayers during studying hours, and it usually interrupts classes and does not allow teachers to conduct a full lesson. Schools that experience such unusual circumstances have to adapt to such situations as it is not prohibited but even allowed at the state level.

Since the government allows prayers in schools, this causes discontent from some schools’ administration and students who do not adhere to prayers. Many states stand for equality, and the USA is not an exception, where schools aim to establish equality between students. However, not all schools can accept the government’s suggestion as fighting against bullying is one of the hugest goals of schools. Students’ aggressive attitude to prayer does not allow them to act according to government rules. Government and schools’ goals are the same, but they accomplish them in different ways, and not everyone manages to achieve them successfully.

To sum up everything that has been stated so far, the state’s permission of prayers in schools is not still accepted by many schools, and some do not take it seriously. Every rule has two or more sides that oppose each other, and prayers in schools are not exceptions. People who support this idea and who are against it always exist, and it might be complicated to influence the beliefs and attitudes of both groups, including teachers, students, parents, and even the government.


Essay writing in compare and contrast style differs from ordinary essays, and they assistance writers in thinking more critically and being able to search for relevant information. The depth of this style helps writers convey more details about their paper and make their masterpieces more available and flourish to readers. Moreover, different types of structures support writers every time they start writing, as they can choose one out of many structures to finish their work successfully. To support a professional level of the paper, writers should improve their spelling skills, and basic rules of learning word spelling play a huge role and keep an advanced level of every professional writer.


Clark, S. K., Judd, E. & Smith, L. K. (2021). Examining the effects of integrated science and literacy instruction to teach second-graders to write compare and contrast informational text. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49, 567-579. Web.

Stern, J. & Shillitoe, R. (2019). Prayer spaces in schools: A subversion of policy implementation. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 40(2), 228-245. Web.

Treiman, R. (2018). Teaching and learning spelling. Child Development Perspectives, 12(4), 235-239. Web.

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ChalkyPapers. (2022) 'Compare and Contrast: The Effects of Integrated Science'. 30 August.


ChalkyPapers. 2022. "Compare and Contrast: The Effects of Integrated Science." August 30, 2022.

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ChalkyPapers. "Compare and Contrast: The Effects of Integrated Science." August 30, 2022.