The main purpose, which must be achieved during this lesson, is to bridge the chasm that may sometimes exist between theoretical knowledge and practice. The major problem is that very often nursing students are not able to apply their skills in emergency situations. Our major task is to incorporate these two inseparable parts into one lesson, because such approach seems to be more effective: sometimes, medical students treat theoretical aspects with some uncertainty and focus more practical side of nursing, forgetting that they are interdependent.
This lesson should result in the following outcome: first, and foremost, learners should acquire practical skills of nursing, in particular, the treatment of various fractures, and rendering the first aid, which is obligatory in such cases. Apart from that, it is of the paramount importance to improve communicative skills of students. Under some circumstances, the medical worker must comfort the patients, but he or she is not always able to do it, and this drawback often leads to rather detrimental effects.
In theory, after this lesson, a student should understand that a nurse must possess not only the perfect knowledge of human anatomy but also certain psychological skills, which involve: 1) ability to comfort the patient: 2) ability to keep equanimity in emergency situations, 3) quick and appropriate reaction (Keating et al, 2005).
While developing a lesson plan, the educator should take into consideration such factor as the peculiarities of the audience: namely, their education level, their age, the ratio between males and females. It should be taken into account that there are a great number of class parameters and they shape the subsequent strategy, chosen by the teacher. First, we should speak about the number of learners, the type of content, and the amount of time, available for the completion of the unit or part.
As far as the instructional design is concerned, we may give preference to the so-called ADDIE model, which stands for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (Reigeluth, 1990). It should be borne in mind that all these stages are closely interwoven with one another. The main advantage of this technique is that it offers the opportunity to eliminate mistakes in the future; it relies on feedback and constant reassessment.
While speaking about learning theories, many educators suggest the use of constructivist approach, which means that a student derives knowledge from his or her own experience. To a certain degree, he or she maintains relatively high degree of independence, however this technique is not quite applicable to medical classes, in this case, behaviorism seems to be more efficient, because it enables the teacher to guide the educational process and amend possible mistakes. Moreover, in this lesson, the educator can act not only as a facilitator, and supervisor, he or she may become active participants of students activities.
During this lesson, it is necessary to combine various instructional methods. As it has been noted before, we have chosen behaviorist approach that attaches primary importance to the educator, thus, in the vast majority of cases, we will use teacher-oriented methods such as explicit teaching, guided reading, role playing, and multi-media instruction (Iwasiw et al, 2009).
The lesson will start with: 1) the concise introduction of the learning objectives at this moment, the students should be well aware of the goal that they must achieve at the end of the class. The next stage will involve the (2) illustration of material (various types of fractures). It is important that the instructor employs various techniques of demonstration such as handouts, video materials, research articles, graphics and so forth. The following phase can be classified as (3) preliminary check-up, the teacher should put several questions concerning the material, for instance, he or she may ask students to name various types of fractures and the measures that the nurse should take in such situations.
Besides, the educators should provide insights into the behavior of the patients in such cases, how they may react, and how the medical worker must deal with them. After that, students must try to apply the acquired knowledge in practice. In the case; the role play is the most useful delivery method. Some students or even the instructor may play the part of the victim, whereas the nurse must render him or her first aid. Naturally, such environment does not fully reflect a really critical situation, but this practice will make learners more prepared. Finally, the learners should complete a short test, covering the material studied during the class. The results of this evaluation will enable the instructor to prevent students from making common mistakes in the future. Yet, the assessment should be primarily based on the teacher’s observation of nurses practical skills and their reaction to emergencies.
To conclude, such technique may increase the net productivity of medical classes because it combines theoretical aspects and practice. Naturally, it is not always possible for the instructor to do it because some knowledge can be put into practice only in the hospital. Nevertheless, in this particular case, the amalgam of theory and practice is quite appropriate.
Carroll Iwasiw, Dolly Goldenberg, Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn (2009) “Curriculum Development in Nursing Education”. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Charles M. Reigeluth (1990). “Instructional-design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sarah B. Keating (2005). “Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing” Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.