Instructional Process: Approach to Learning

Introduced in the 1970s, the ADDIE remains the most popular instructional process model. The acronym stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, each of which is a stage in designing training courses (Molenda, 2015). The stages should be organized in this particular order for the model to realize its full potential. The analysis stage includes researching learners’ educational needs and answering the question as to why the training is important at all. Design and Development have two specific deliverables: an overview of the course design and course contents. Implementation refers to the actual delivery of the course, and evaluation refers to the critical assessment of the results.

Alongside the ADDIE model, educational institutions adopt other ISD models, such as Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. A student-centered model, Bloom’s Taxonomy hinges on the premise that learners need to push through the lower levels of cognition to develop higher-order cognitive faculties (Adams, 2015). The taxonomy is visualized as a pyramid, at the bottom of which is remembering and understanding while applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating take their place at the top. Compared to the ADDIE model, Bloom’s taxonomy does not address the course development process and is unclear about the role of the educator.

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction use the behaviorist approach to learning. Each event, such as “gaining attention” or “informing about objectives,” is a mental condition that the environment needs to meet to facilitate learning (Islam & Salam, 2019). In a way, Gagne’s model is like the extended ADDIE model but with a greater emphasis on student engagement. Gagne’s Nine Events would be my choice because it clarifies the roles of learners and educators and encourages collaboration.


Adams, N. E. (2015). Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 103(3), 152.

Islam, N., & Salam, A. (2019). Evaluation of training session applying Gagne’s Events of Instructions. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, 18(3), 552-556.

Molenda, M. (2015). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance Improvement, 54(2), 40-42.

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ChalkyPapers. "Instructional Process: Approach to Learning." May 3, 2022.