The principal techniques of evaluating a person’s performance on various diagnostic devices (intelligent tests) as a model for estimating future behavior have been referred to as psychometric testing, for example, in educational programs. The terms ‘intellectual ability’ and ‘intelligence quotient’ (IQ) interrelate with IQ in widespread usage. They refer both to a test score and the characteristic (intelligence) that is thought to be the cause of the score. The background of IQ tests and their analysis can be divided into four periods: prehistory from nearly 1865 to 1904, an emergence and development period from 1905 until the end of World War II, an intense social scrutiny era from the 1960s through the 1980s, and a resurgence of social controversy in the mid-1990s and after.
Significance of Intelligence Testing
The capacity to think, resolve issues, evaluate situations, and reflect on social values, cultures, and morals is a component of intelligence. Testing intelligence is a method for estimating a learner’s current degree of intellectual functioning. It requires individuals to complete a variety of tasks developed to evaluate various types of reasoning. According to Eysenck (2018), a child’s IQ is determined by standardized testing with norm-referenced tests. While IQ tests have been used for a long time, educators continue to debate their utility and current relevance. Therefore, the thinking capacity of an individual gives a basis on whether to conduct an intelligence test on them.
There are two types of commonly identified intelligence testing. Grondhuis (2018) states that any intelligence audits focus on two distinct areas. The first area is the ability to comprehend and fix vocabulary problems in verbal intelligence. The second refers to understanding and solution of sequenced and structural issues is nonverbal intelligence. In both cases, the critical question is how intelligence testing can assist teachers and guardians in achieving a child’s individual learning needs. A parent or guardians must learn as much as they can about why testing is done, the benefits of testing, and the different types of assessments available before they pursue testing for their child.
The Purpose of Intelligence Testing in Academics
A relatively typical IQ test requires the test subject to assist in the resolution of a number of problems affecting education in a set period while being monitored. Most test items encompass items from a range of short attention span, verbal understanding, visuospatial, and information processing speed. There are a few more assessments that have a hard deadline in general. Another approach involves setting a waiting period for each cluster of difficulties; however, a few incredibly long, unsupervised experiments have traditionally been used to measure complicated tasks.
Intelligence testing could indeed assist teachers in assessing a student’s needs and determining how the student will perform scholastically. Intelligence testing was previously used to affirm or principle out the existence of intellectual difficulties and establish IQ. Thus, testing is used to identify and treat learning difficulties. The vital information on how learners approach problem-solving depends on the type of intelligence test administered to them.
Attributes of Intelligence Testing
When a child struggles at school, it may be because of a learning difficulty perceived as inability to grasp the information quickly and effectively. Learning difficulties can make children appear less capable of learning than they are if these problems are left unrecognized or unaddressed. The question whether a child has a low IQ can be excluded as a cause of poor school achievement by the use of an IQ test. Intelligence testing can also reveal any erroneous assumptions educators have made about a student’s genuine ability-based only on their success in school.
IQ tests for kids are a contentious topic, but intelligence testing is widely accepted for identifying gifted children and children with developmental delays. Moreover, the tests can highlight a child’s strengths and weaknesses. A child with learning disabilities may excel in math but struggle in reading; children may be good at speaking but not writing. These insights can help teachers determine a child’s needs.
Specific Examples of Intelligence Tests
Different types of intelligence testing tools are widely used worldwide, and they are developed and published in various forms.
Individual Intelligence Tests
Several different tasks may be included in an individual’s IQ test, some of which are timed. For example, students may use easel test books to point out answers, do puzzles or games, or participate in question-and-answer sessions. Individualized intelligence tests include the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Stanford Binet-Intelligence Scale, formerly known as the Binet-Simon Test (Gibbons &Warne, 2019). A cognitive disability can be diagnosed using the Stanford-Binet test, which contains language, symbols, and performance-based questions.
Computerized testing is a newly emerged area of psychodiagnostics research related to the use of electronic computing equipment. The advantages of computerized tests include fast execution, high speed and error-free processing, and provision of standard testing conditions for all subjects (Navarro & Mourgues-Codern, 2018). Among the disadvantages of computerized tests researchers single out complexity, labor intensity and high cost of program development, and the need for expensive computer equipment.
Group Intelligence Tests
The most common format for a group intelligence exam is a paper booklet with scanned score sheets. Some academic disciplines are assessed using a group accomplishment test that includes a cognitive component. As a rule, group examinations are not advised to identify children with disabilities. When used as a screening tool to determine whether or not further testing is necessary, however, they can provide valuable context about a child’s academic past.
Nonverbal Intelligence Tests
Nonverbal tests are tests that do not require the ability to read and write. Their implementation is based on the use of oral instructions and communication with the diagnostician. Both, objects and visual images, as well as verbal content can be used in tasks. For example, they can be aimed at diagnosing the understanding of the meanings of words, sentences or short paragraphs using visual means with simultaneous oral instructions for each task. Therefore, non-verbal intelligence tests are unsuitable for people who speak another language, as well as for non-hearing individuals.
Timing for Administering Tests
If an individual has any doubts about whether or not their child is gifted, they might want to consider putting them through an IQ test. Intelligence other than verbal and logical cannot be described by this test. It is possible to use a child’s test scores as a starting point for monitoring their intellectual development and growth. In an ideal world, testing would help parents and their children’s educational team pinpoint the underlying causes of their difficulties and determine whether or not they require intervention or accommodations. However, it is critical not to use children’s IQ to categorize or label them since it may limit their success or otherwise hamper their progress.
To enhance the understanding of their children’s strengths and weaknesses, parents may consider using an intelligence test. There are private psychologists and public school districts that offer intelligence testing. Intelligence testing is designed to measure the level of intellectual development regardless of the influence of environmental factors of the social environment. An IQ test can reveal a child’s strengths and weaknesses, allowing parents to tailor their child’s education better. However, it is essential to remember that intelligence testing should not be used to determine a child’s potential or future success.
Eysenck, H. J. (2018). A new look intelligence. Routledge. Web.
Gibbons, A., & Warne, R. T. (2019). First publication of subtests in the Stanford-Binet 5, WAIS-IV, WISC-V, and WPPSI-IV. Intelligence, 75, 9-18. Web.
Grondhuis, S. N., Lecavalier, L., Arnold, L. E., Handen, B. L., Scahill, L., McDougle, C. J., & Aman, M. G. (2018). Differences in verbal and nonverbal IQ test scores in children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 49, 47-55. Web.
Navarro, J. J., & Mourgues-Codern, C. V. (2018). Dynamic assessment and computerized adaptive tests in reading processes. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 17(1), 70-96. Web.