Intervention of a School-Based Alcohol Education Program

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Evidence selection

The first evidence is from the Cochrane Database. This evidence proves that school-based alcohol education programs can reduce alcohol consumption among youths. A study carried out by Foxcroft and Tsertsvadze (2011), elaborates on the importance of school-based alcohol education programs in the provision of knowledge to young adults. The article provides objective information that can be used to establish a school-based program in the education curriculum. The article provides a theoretical framework needed, for a person to understand a given idea of another person. Five out of the seven programs employed in the schools achieved a reduction in alcohol and substance abuse (Foxcroft & Tsertsvadze, 2011).

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The other evidence is from the SportDiscus. The article by Hopson and Steiker in 2010 evaluated the efficacy of the adopted version of school-based prevention programs. A Quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the adopted programs that were aimed to enhance the school curriculum to reduce alcohol and drug abuse among children (Hopson & Steiker, 2010). The design used questionnaires during the pre-test, post-tests, and follow-ups. The researchers analyzed data using multivariate variance analysis. The program reduced alcohol use among younger participants significantly. The results indicated that using a school-based program reduces alcohol retention.

A study from the Cochrane Database systematic review was evaluated to confirm whether school-based alcohol education programs can be used to reduce alcohol misuse in University and college students. The study was conducted by Anderson, Chisholm, & Fuhr (2009). I chose this article because it provides reliable measures of preventing alcohol use, particularly its consumption, by young adults. The article looks at the cost-effective ways of preventing and stopping alcohol consumption by the young generation.

These three articles correlate with the topic of discussion. They draw good examples to elaborate how school-based education programs play a significant role in preventing and reducing alcohol consumption by youths.

Evidence summary

Introduction

Alcohol misuse among teens and young adults in schools is an increasing problem in communities. This paper proposes an intervention of a school-based alcohol education program in the New South Wales school curriculum. It looks at the best available evidence as to whether school-based interventions can reduce harm due to excessive alcohol consumption.

School-based programs

A Cochrane study by Newton et al., (2009) used a randomized control trial and intervention. Control groups were assessed at the baseline (Newton et al., 2009). The computerized program and the usual class program were compared. This assessment used students from Sydney. There was also a reduction in alcohol use immediately after the intervention.

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Stephens et al. (2009) conducted a study that used high school students to evaluate the social influences and competencies that enhance school-based program outcomes. A logistic regression analysis of alcohol was performed. Communication skills proved to have iatrogenic effects of alcohol use. In addition, the evidence results showed a moderating effect of perceptions and attitude towards the harm of each drug to be critical for the success of the programs (Stephens et al., 2009)

A Medline database study by Will and Sabo (2010) evaluated whether the knowledge gained from the Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) program increases awareness of the impacts of alcohol consumption in students. The study also evaluated the effectiveness of 1720 modules in these programs that were delivered to the 8th, 9th, and 10th graders. The study found that student knowledge increased significantly from pre-test (M-84.96) to post-test (M-97.25, SD=12.39) (Will & Sabo, 2010). Their knowledge and awareness of alcohol abuse improved significantly.

Lemstra et al., (2010), conducted a literature review of published and unpublished articles from 1980 to 2007 to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of this intervention. The findings of the study suggested that the “comprehensive programs reduced alcohol intake by a mean of 12 days of usage every month. In addition, the programs caused a mean reduction of 7 days among adolescents aged between 10 and 15 (Lemstra et al., 2010). From this, the researchers concluded that comprehensive programs are effective in reducing drug and alcohol abuse.

The final evidence is a TRIP study by Vogl, Teesson, Andrews, Bird, Steadman and Dillon in 2009. The study indicated that school-based alcohol education programs should be incorporated in schools, to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse. The researchers conducted an intensive review of the literature on school-based programs. The findings of the research indicated significant effects of the programs (Vogl et al., 2009).

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Conclusion

There exists clear and strong evidence indicating that school-based alcohol education programs are effective in reducing alcohol consumption among the youths. The evidence also supports the usual classes and computer-based school programs that address this problem. Therefore, school-based programs should be incorporated into the education curriculum, to fight alcoholism among children and young adults.

References

Anderson, P., Chisholm, D., & Fuhr, D. C. (2009). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. The Lancet, 373(9682), 2234-2246.

Foxcroft, D., & Tsertsvadze, A. (2011). Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5).

Hopson, L. M., & Steiker, L. K. H. (2010). The effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program in reducing alcohol use among alternative school students. Children & schools, 32(2), 81-92.

Lemstra, M., Bennett, N., Nannapaneni, U., Neudorf, C., Warren, L., Kershaw, T., & Scott, C. (2010). A systematic review of school-based marijuana and alcohol prevention programs targeting adolescents aged 10-15. Addiction Research & Theory, 18(1), 84-96.

Newton, N. C., Vogl, L. E., Teesson, M., & Andrews, G. (2009). Climate Schools: alcohol module: cross-validation of a school-based prevention programme for alcohol misuse. Australasian Psychiatry, 43(3), 201-207.

Stephens, P. C., Sloboda, Z., Stephens, R. C., Teasdale, B., Grey, S. F., Hawthorne, R. D., & Williams, J. (2009). Universal school-based substance abuse prevention programs: Modeling targeted mediators and outcomes for adolescent cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 102(1), 19-29.

Vogl, L., Teesson, M., Andrews, G., Bird, K., Steadman, B., & Dillon, P. (2009). A computerized harm minimization prevention program for alcohol misuse and related harms: randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 104(4), 564-575.

Will, K., & Sabo, C. (2010). Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 54(1), 14-36.

Appendix

Abstracts

Foxcroft, D., & Tsertsvadze, A. (2011). Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5), CD009113. Web.

Background: Alcohol misuse in young people is the cause of concern for health services, policymakers, prevention workers, the criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, parents. This is one of three reviews examining the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based, and (3) multi-component prevention programs.

Objectives: To review evidence on the effectiveness of universal school-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age.

Search Strategy: Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO.

Selection Criteria: Randomized trials evaluating universal school-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records.

Data Collection and Analysis: Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. The risk of bias was assessed.

Main Results: 53 trials were included, most of which were cluster-randomized. The reporting quality of trials was poor, with only 3.8% of them reporting adequate methods of randomization and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data were adequately addressed in 23% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively. Six of the 11 trials evaluating alcohol-specific interventions showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a standard curriculum. In 14 of the 39 trials evaluating generic interventions, the program interventions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in alcohol use either through a main or subgroup effect. Gender, baseline alcohol use, and ethnicity modified the effects of interventions. Results from the remaining 3 trials with interventions targeting cannabis, alcohol, and/or tobacco were inconsistent.

Authors’ Conclusions: This review identified studies that showed no effects of preventive interventions, as well as studies that demonstrated statistically significant effects. There was no easily discernible pattern in characteristics that would distinguish trials with positive results from those with no effects. The most commonly observed positive effects across programs were drunkenness and binge drinking. Current evidence suggests that certain generic psychosocial and developmental prevention programs can be effective and could be considered as policy and practice options. These include the Life Skills Training Program, the Unplugged program, and the Good Behaviour Game. A stronger focus of future research on intervention program content and delivery context is warranted.

Hopson, L. M., & Steiker, L. K. H. (2010). The effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program in reducing alcohol use among alternative school students. Children & schools, 32(2), 81-92.

Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youth, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real-world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR), with alternative school students. Programs are often adapted when used in schools and other community settings for a variety of reasons. The kiR adaptations, developed during an earlier phase of this study, were created to make the curriculum more appropriate for alternative high school youth. The adaptations were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design in which questionnaires were administered at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up, and focus groups were conducted at post-test. MANOVA analyses indicate significantly reduced intentions to accept alcohol and, for younger participants, reduced alcohol use. Focus group data support the need for age-appropriate prevention content. The authors discuss implications for practitioners implementing prevention programs in schools.

Anderson, P., Chisholm, D., & Fuhr, D. C. (2009). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. The Lancet, 373(9682), 2234-2246.

This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Chocrane Databases show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programs have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

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ChalkyPapers. (2022, March 27). Intervention of a School-Based Alcohol Education Program. Retrieved from https://chalkypapers.com/intervention-of-a-school-based-alcohol-education-program/

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ChalkyPapers. (2022) 'Intervention of a School-Based Alcohol Education Program'. 27 March.

References

ChalkyPapers. 2022. "Intervention of a School-Based Alcohol Education Program." March 27, 2022. https://chalkypapers.com/intervention-of-a-school-based-alcohol-education-program/.

1. ChalkyPapers. "Intervention of a School-Based Alcohol Education Program." March 27, 2022. https://chalkypapers.com/intervention-of-a-school-based-alcohol-education-program/.


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