Different educational systems entirely rely on the distribution of various learning methods. They are understood as a sequential alternation of ways of interaction between teachers and students aimed at achieving a certain didactic goal. Neil Fleming, a teacher from New Zealand and an education theorist, developed the VARK model (visual, auditory, kinesthetic information, as well as reading and writing) (Watts). However, reading and writing have long been regarded as a practice of an aural approach. Despite the wide range of available learning methods, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic methods remain the most popular in the field of education.
The primary learning method is visual, which is characterized by the fact that visual aids are used in the process of their application in order to gain new knowledge. Many science lessons demonstrate natural objects, various paintings, tables, graphs, and other dynamic and static visual means (Daniels 22). Students independently or on a task determined by the teacher comprehend and analyze the demonstrated visual aids and draw conclusions. In each case, when using visual methods, the development of activity in perception and understanding is ensured; therefore, specific cognitive tasks are set for students. They indicate how to observe, what to consider, what to determine, and what to learn. Additionally, this method incorporates watching videos or films pertaining to the topic (Daniels 21). Educational films have more advantages over other visual media, so their demonstration is used as a teaching method. Watching the movie gives students diverse and rich information that is perceived in dynamics simultaneously by visual and auditory senses, and on the basis of this perception of objects and processes is carried out.
The other learning method is auditory, which presumes the usage of songs, sounds, and speaking exercises. The auditory personality type perceives a larger amount of information and faster – they have introduced the sound format of incoming data (Mangal 191). For example, a teacher may suggest learning the sounds animals make or listening to songs and memorizing lyrics for kids who perceive sounds better. In addition, an educator should incorporate a range of speaking activities. Notes and lectures should be presented in an audial form so that they can memorize them better. In fact, people with auditory perception type tend to learn languages better (Mangal 193). It is attainable once they practice speaking and listening activities. On the whole, this method is normally combined with the visual one to make a learning process more effective.
Kinesthetic or tactile learning is a style of learning in which students acquire knowledge through physical activity. It does not normally involve listening to lectures or watching instructional videos. In this case, the transmission and perception of information are organized with the help of muscular efforts and other bodily sensations that are not related to the work of the auditory, speech, and visual apparatus. In schools and universities, this method is quite rare in its pure form, for example, when forming the concepts of “warm,” “cold,” “solid,” “liquid,” and others (Watts). However, teaching deaf-blind children is possible only with the help of kinesthetic methods. Using this learning method is vital to use a hands-on approach and create group assignments (Watts). In general, this method is suitable for those who prefer to get a new experience, love to touch things, and cannot stop fidgeting while staying in one place.
In conclusion, learning methods are immeasurable in number, yet visual, auditory, and kinesthetic remain the most widespread due to their efficacy. The visual approach presumes learning on the basis of pictures and videos, the acoustic implies the usage of tracks, music, and speech practicing, and the kinesthetic one is based on physical sensations. All of these have proven to be efficient and are still in demand because people perceive information differently.
Daniels, Susan. Visual Learning and Teaching: An Essential Guide for Educators K–8. Free Spirit Publishing, 2020.
Mangal, S. K. Learning and Teaching. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2019.
Watts, Selena. Teaching Yourself to Teach: A Comprehensive guide to the fundamental and Practical Information You Need to Succeed as a Teacher Today. Wryting Ltd, 2020.