There is no need to create separate lessons for every infant on a weekly basis. Instead, learning activities have to be divided into relevant categories so as to help the educator pick a small number of developmental milestones and focus on individual elements of learning (see Table 1). The progress that infants will make over time is going to create enough space for the new milestones, depending on how they are going to cope with the lesson plan at hand.
Learners’ awareness will be tested prior to the deployment of the proposed lesson plan in order to make sure that all children are on the same page and ready to enrich their knowledge base. Their cognitive development should be considered in the planning procedures because pre-kindergarten children already possess the ability to be flexible and make important choices (see Table 2) (Atteberry et al., 2019). Even though these children have an exceptionally short attention span, proposed activities will serve as an appropriate means of prioritizing activities and helping learners focus on what is actually important.
The age group will be assessed several times so as to make sure that the lesson plan is as systematic as possible. Even though specific instructions are not required, and lots of improvised activities can be added to the contents of the lesson, the best way is to come prepared and ensure that all learners are approximately similar in terms of their cognitive and academic development (see Table 3) (Skibbe et al., 2019). Important keywords and lesson goals can be shared with the learners in advance in order to help them adjust to the educator’s expectations.
Table 1. Height and temperature: A lesson plan for infants.
|Learning Objectives|| |
|DAP/NGSS||Even though the key to infant education is the relationship between the child and the special people in their lives, the essential value is the kid’s eagerness to explore,which has to be supported thoroughly. This will help children develop an identity and explore the world around them. The roles of culture and knowledgecannot be underestimated because they relate to how family members and caregivers connect when coming up with setting up the learning environment for infants of different ages.|
|Resources||Various household items, stickers, pens, crayons, color paper, visual aids.|
Table 2. Time and length: A lesson plan for pre-kindergarten kids.
|Learning Objectives|| |
|DAP/NGSS||The new experiencesrelated to activities, ideas, and materials represent the core of pre-kindergarten plans. The cognitive gainthat children go through during this age can be extremely helpful in terms of representing certain concepts through the prism of real-life objects.|
|Resources||Handouts of different shapes, colors, and sizes; stopwatch; visual aids (presentations, videos, etc.)|
Table 3. Comparing and patterning: A lesson plan for second-graders.
|Learning Objectives|| |
|DAP/NGSS||Concept studyrepresents the core of this lesson plan, with the only condition being that children will have enough time to focus on the tasks and ask for and find relevant explanations. Various instances of visual information will facilitate the process of the educator conveying the required ideas. Children will practice their newly acquired skillsof comparison and patterning instantly, developing both emotionally and scientifically.|
|Resources||Handouts of different shapes, colors, and sizes; crayons; color paper; visual aids (presentations, videos, etc.)|
In order to come up with the most relevant accommodations for children of all ages, it is essential to follow up on the next few questions and provide responses that are as detailed as possible:
- Is the given child capable of participating in the activity as effectively and energetically as their peers?
- If the answer to the first question is “no,” will there be an opportunity to achieve the necessary learning objectives with the help of adapted materials? Adapted expectations?
- Is there a need for a smaller group of learners to help the child accomplish the goals?
- Is it necessary to provide sporadic assistance from the educator to help the child remain in line with activity requirements? Does the child need direct adult aid to accomplish the goals?
- Are there any parallel, alternative activities that could be completed by the child?
Children with special needs also have to benefit from specific accommodations that may be assigned to a series of different categories based on the educator’s preferences and needs. The first viable category is the presentation of all the required materials. For example, handouts could feature a larger print and a smaller number of items per page. Also, instructions and crucial data could be available on audiotape so as to make sure that children with visual impairments would have a chance to learn efficiently (Cheng & Lai, 2020). A designated reader could be included in lesson plans as well.
The response cohort of special needs covers the presence of verbal responses in children and makes it possible to dictate answers to a transcriber. Depending on the availability of necessary tech, a tape recorder could be utilized to convey messages to children. The prevalence of computers could become a serious benefit for educators as well.
The biggest changes to the learning process could be instigated with the aid of timing and setting elements of the learning environment. Children with special needs are going to require more time for tests and evaluations while also asking for frequent breaks. This will also go along with preferential seating, reduced distractions, special lighting, and many more (Sansour & Bernard, 2018). Smaller groups of learners will have to be assembled to improve the academic performance of kids with special needs.
Ultimately, test scheduling and preparation activities will be altered in an attempt to make sure that children with special needs can accomplish the same learning objectives or their reasonable alternatives. In addition to allocating more time for the required evaluations, educators will be responsible for picking the right time of the day and setting the proper question order for subtests and supplementary evaluations (Dash, 2018). Special preparation activities and focusing prompts can be included to meet learner needs.
Atteberry, A., Bassok, D., & Wong, V. C. (2019). The effects of full-day pre-kindergarten: Experimental evidence of impacts on children’s school readiness. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 41(4), 537-562. Web.
Cheng, S. C., & Lai, C. L. (2020). Facilitating learning for students with special needs: A review of technology-supported special education studies. Journal of Computers in Education, 7(2), 131-153. Web.
Dash, N. (2018). Problems and challenges of inclusive education for students with special needs. Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 8(1), 155-162.
Sansour, T., & Bernhard, D. (2018). Special needs education and inclusion in Germany and Sweden. Alter, 12(3), 127-139. Web.
Skibbe, L. E., Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., & Morrison, F. J. (2019). Self-regulation and the development of literacy and language achievement from preschool through second grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 46, 240-251. Web.