Thesis and Juvenile Justice

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Discuss the use of appendices in the thesis

Appendices refer to materials used during the writing process of a thesis that comprise detailed materials that are not included in the body of the text (Romena, 2011). They are appended to a thesis after the bibliography or references page. Such materials include detailed explanations of procedures and processes, financial data, quoted material that is too long, interview questions, surveys, audio and video files, and large tables, diagrams, and charts (Romena, 2011). The heading pattern for the appendices should match the one used for naming the chapter headings of the thesis. The title appendix is used only if it is a single one. However, appendices are used if they are more than one. It is mandatory to include all the titles of the appendices on the outline of the thesis. Finally, appendices are presented in the same order in which they appear in the body text.

Fully discuss the purpose of the literature review in the thesis

A literature review has a critical role in a thesis. It demonstrates full comprehension of the discipline under study, justifies and explicates the importance of the research conducted, and gives an opportunity to develop a theoretical framework and methodological focus for the thesis (Rahim, 2007). It convinces the reader that the research is important, and explains its relevance to the field under study. A literature review presents the most important information about the proposed research questions and its relevance to the research (Thomas & Brubaker, 2000). It shows what has been done before, weaknesses, strengths, and areas that need further research. A good literature review is an important aspect of writing an excellent thesis.

Fully discuss the methods and data analysis section of the thesis

In a thesis, the methods and data analysis section discusses the methods used to collect and analyze data. It describes the location of the study in the case of a qualitative study, and the number of participants in the case of a quantitative study (Rahim, 2007). It discusses the instruments used for data collection. The section also describes the procedure used for data collection. For example, the use of questionnaires. Moreover, appendices such as a document of permission to conduct the research are presented (Thomas & Brubaker, 2000). The section also describes the methods used to process and analyze data. The author also states the procedures that were used to promote the safety of human participants. Finally, the section discusses the internal and external validity of the research design (Thomas & Brubaker, 2000). This describes the appropriateness of the design in addressing the research questions exhaustively.

Fully discuss the limitations of the “conclusions section” of the thesis

The conclusions section summarizes the main points of the thesis. It includes the topic of research, the rationale of the research, methods used, and the findings (Jones, et al, 2008). In addition, it presents the relationship between existing literature and the new findings. The significance of the research, and areas that need further research are also included. The conclusion section has several limitations. Findings that have not been proven in the body of the thesis are excluded (Rahim, 2007). Moreover, only data that is presented in the body is included in the conclusion. New data is not introduced. It is not recommendable to make practical recommendations based on the research study. If recommendations are given, then they are included under the appendices section (Jones, et al, 2008). The section should also discuss the weaknesses and limitations of the thesis.

Identify and discuss the major components of writing and presenting your research study and findings

Components of writing and presenting the research study and findings include connecting the research question to the findings, implications, and relation to earlier research (Jones, et al, 2008). The author should discuss whether the findings support the hypothesis of the study, and give additional information that was collected with regard to what was being studied. Another component of the findings section is the contribution made by the findings. The author discusses how the findings contribute to existing knowledge on that field under study. Agreements and disagreements between the findings and existing research should be discussed. Alternative interpretations should be considered when presenting one’s interpretation of the findings. Finally, the implications of the study should be discussed based on their contribution to professional practice, technical application, and theory (Jones, et al, 2008). Findings can be presented in various forms that include tables, graphs, diagrams, or in prose in the form of a discussion.

Identify and discuss the process of defending your thesis

Defending a thesis refers to presenting, explaining, and defending one’s research work. In addition, it includes presenting the rationale of the decisions and choices made during a research study (Romena, 2011). For example, the rationale of the research methods chosen are presented and explained. A thesis defense comprises two main parts that include a thesis and the defense. A thesis refers to a certain position that is presented and supported by evidence through and argument. On the other hand, defense refers to presentation of evidence with regard to a certain thesis. During a defense, a candidate presents their material in the presence of a committee or a university faculty (Jones, et al, 2008). The faculty asks questions such as the weaknesses of the study and the rationale of the research methods. The candidate discuses the research questions, literature review, methodology, findings, and areas that need further research.

Identify and discuss the mass media impact on juvenile violence in the United States

The mass media has increased cases of juvenile violence in the United States. Form their early childhood, children are bombarded with violent content that affects them adversely. For example, the violent content contained in films, video games, and television encourages aggression and violent behaviors in children (Krisberg, 2005). Children learn by imitating what they see other people doing. They imitate what they see in movies and video games and try it on their peers. In many films and movies, violence is a sign of strength and power, and it is a characteristic trait of superheroes. On the other hand, the violent content makes it difficult for children to differentiate between fact and fiction (Krisberg, 2005). In addition, children become desensitized towards violence. Mass media contains many cases of killings and shootings. Continued exposure initiates development of aggressiveness and violent behaviors.

Define and discuss some early theories of crime and delinquency causation

Examples of early theories of crime and delinquency causation include the demonology theory, biological theories, and psychological theories. Psychological theories attributed delinquency and crime to lack of intelligence (Siegel, 2006). In addition, they attributed crime to psychological disturbances. Many psychologists believed that mental defectives and inferior intelligence led to delinquency and crime. Biological theories held that genes for crime and delinquency were inherited. Therefore, if a parent was a delinquent, the offspring will possess genes for delinquency and crime (Siegel, 2006). For example, according to Cesare Lombroso’s born criminal theory, some individuals were born as criminals and they had features that could aid in their identification. The demonology theory held that delinquents’ actions resulted from evil spirits (Siegel, 2006). Crime was considered a result of external forces that were beyond the control of the individual this theory did not recognize free will as the main cause of delinquency and crime.

Define and discuss Juvenile Diversion Programs

Juvenile Diversion programs refer to programs adopted by the criminal justice in order to enable young people avoid criminal charge (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). These programs give relief to offenders, courts, probation officers, and law enforcement agencies. They give young offenders an opportunity to avoid prosecution by fulfilling certain requirements. These requirements might include community service for a certain period, education, restitution to victims, and staying away from situations that encourage crime (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). Diversion programs offer these remedies to young offenders as alternatives to prosecution and jail sentences. Juvenile offenders who successfully complete a diversion program receive amnesty or charges that are lenient. On the other hand, offenders who fail to complete the program receive stern penalties. The main role of juvenile diversion programs is to rehabilitate young offenders and discourage them from committing crime (Whitehead & Lab, 2012).

Discuss the “Adversarial” versus the “Inquisitorial” court approach

The adversarial court system refers to a system in which the court is divided into two sides that present evidence as pertains to the innocence or guilt of a suspect. In this system, the judge is neutral and makes a decision based on evaluation of evidence presented by both sides (Neubauer & Fradella, 2010). The role of the judge is to ensure that the trial adheres to the rules of the criminal justice system. In contrast, an inquisitorial court system is one in which the court takes an active part in the preparation and hearing of a case (Neubauer & Fradella, 2010). The judge, the prosecution, and the defense sides question a suspect separately in order to get information related to the case. The judge can force a suspect to give answers to certain questions that might prove their guilt or innocence.

Identify and discuss the “pros” and “cons” of juvenile correctional institutions

Pros of juvenile correctional faculties include rehabilitation of offenders through therapy and counseling and improvement of safety for citizens. These institutions rehabilitate young offenders thus improving their lives and helping them to deviate from crime in their adulthood (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). Rehabilitation also improves security because it reduces cases of crime and violence in communities. Cons include bad influence by seasonal offenders and poor rehabilitation measures. Some juvenile offenders are seasoned criminals and as such influence first-time offenders into advancing their delinquency. On the other hand, some institutions have poor rehabilitation programs. Some offenders that suffer from mental illnesses are not rehabilitated properly because some facilities lack professionals to deal with such problems (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). These problems aggravate and increase the severity of the problem instead of mitigating it.

Discuss the “pros” and “cons” of boot camps

Boot camps make young offenders law-abiding citizens and prepare them for release in to the society. They are better than correctional institutions because they do not admit offenders who have mental or psychological problems. They instill important values such as responsibility, self-control, and respect for seniors (Neubauer & Fradella, 2010). The intense training and stringent requirements of boot camps instill high levels of discipline in juvenile offenders. This makes them better people in the society. Boot camps have cons too. They do not offer any therapy or counseling t offenders. Therefore, they do not deal with emotional or behavioral problems that are usually the predisposing factors of delinquency and crime (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In addition, they worsen the situations of individuals with depression and low self-esteem. Finally, boot camps do not cater for the different needs of offenders because they follow a similar military style program.


Jones, S. Wahba, K., & Heijden, B. (2008). How to write Your MBA Thesis. New York: Meyer & Meyer Verlag.

Krisberg, B. I2005). Juvenile Justice: Redeeming Our Children. New York: SAGE.

Neubauer, D., & Fradella, H. (2010). America’s Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning.

Rahim, A. (2007). Thesis Writing: Manual for All Researchers. New York: New Age International.

Romena, M. (2011). How to Write a Thesis. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Siegel, L. (2006). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies. New York: Cengage Learning.

Thomas, R., & Brubaker, D. (2000). Theses and Dissertations: A Guide to Planning, Research, and Writing. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Whitehead, J., & Lab, S. (2012). Juvenile Justice: An introduction. New York: Elsevier.

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