Curriculum philosophies are essential in the educational systems in various countries. These philosophies focus on what and why the students should learn (Kemal, 2020). It teaches to understand the world in a general sense, for instance, how things work and why it is essential (Kenyon et al., 2019). It is vital to understand why different nations choose various educational programs; moreover, it is necessary to address the advantages and drawbacks of philosophies.
It is clear that historically, many countries were divided into various beliefs, religions, lifestyles, and mindsets. It may affect the way people teach and learn in multiple nations. There are numerous educational philosophies; for example, perennialism is a philosophy that focuses on a human is an intelligent creature, where a school is an organization to reveal this potential in a person. Progressivism is about changing trends in the world; it encourages individualism compared to the previous philosophy (Kaygin et al., 2017). Reconstructivism is about the teacher’s authority and power, while essentialism sees the teacher as a medium for enlightenment.
However, there can be drawbacks to following philosophies of education. For instance, Chinese educational systems often follow the principles of Taoism, which implies a strong authority of omniscient and mighty God (Zhu & Zhang, 2018). It might be problematic for children to grasp such complicated things as religion and God’s authority. Moreover, Germany’s educational programs suggest elements of perennialism; this philosophy encourages old writings of famous philosophers and strongly recommends reading Nietzsche and Kant. However, it might become a one-sided point of view; students learn biased opinions on the topic and might know only a little information. They do not develop their points of view, as imposed by the philosophy, promoting authority and superiority.
Overall, various countries choose different educational philosophies because of historical and cultural premises. All people are different, and they follow the traditions and customs of their predecessors. Among various curriculum philosophies, many essential things might help students to grasp the world. Simultaneously, these philosophies may significantly impact students, oppressing and distorting their point of view.
Kaygin, H., Yilmaz, E., & Semerci, E. (2017). The relation between lifelong learning tendency and educational philosophies. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(12A), 121–125.
Kemal, O. E. (2020). The relationship between teacher self-efficacy beliefs and educational beliefs of pre-service teachers. Educational Research and Reviews, 15(1), 8–18.
Kenyon, E., Terorde-Doyle, D., & Carnahan, S. (2019). Ethics for the very young: A philosophy curriculum for early childhood education (Book 1). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Zhu, J., & Zhang, J. (2018). Review and reflection on the curriculum reform of early childhood education in China. International Handbook of Early Childhood Education, 1, 1173–1189.