Curriculum planning and design are characterized by the application of strategies and models that can be effective for the adult learning and education of persons for the purpose of stimulating their intellectual and professional growth (Bastable, Gramet, Jacobs, & Sopczyk, 2011). From this point, the purpose of planning the curricula and instructional design is to choose the approaches and models that are most appropriate to be used in the given context and with the focus on the certain population. Therefore, depending on the modern changes in the social and educational needs and public interests, the trends in the curriculum design include the active use of technologies to improve the educational process and interactive and virtual models to enhance instructional activities and learning (Bean, 2014).
Curriculum planning and design also depend on the principles of effective learning that are based on the ideas that learners need to understand the objectives of learning, and they should also be motivated, oriented to developing the knowledge and skills, reinforced, and engaged in the process. According to these principles, effective learning can be viewed as grounded on the further aspects:
Determination of learning goals and objectives appropriate for the learners in terms of their aims, needs, and personal characteristics.
Choice of performance-based objectives.
Focus on the problem-oriented and experience-oriented learning.
Choice of teaching strategies, models, techniques, and methods according to the set objectives.
The accentuated role of the social interaction and collaboration.
Emphasis on the significance of learning and motivation.
Creation of the positive and supportive atmosphere (Caffarella & Daffron, 2013).
Teaching Strategies for Curriculum Planning and Design
The main teaching strategies that are used for curriculum planning and design are lectures, demonstrations, one-on-one instructions, group discussions, simulations, role plays, as well as the computer assisted instruction. The choice of the teaching strategy depends on the objectives, and it is aimed at developing an effective plan of the teaching-learning process.
These teaching strategies are characterized by the following details:
Lecture is appropriate to provide the theoretical material or the cognitive information in concepts.
Demonstration is used when it is necessary to illustrate how the knowledge can be applied to practice.
One-on-one instruction guarantees the personalized learning when a learner is taught or trained individually.
Other types of teaching strategies include the following ones:
Group discussion allows developing skills in critical thinking, supporting ideas, and problem solving.
Simulation allows training under certain conditions that are close to the real situations.
Role play allows the direct application of the learned information or skills.
Computer-assisted instruction allows persons to learn more independently and provides flexibility for instructions.
Comparison of Instructional Design Models
Instructional design models are primarily divided into three main groups: conventional, practical, and radical models. In order to understand in what cases these models work most effectively, it is important to compare them.
Conventional models are traditionally used by designers, and they are linear, organized to achieve the progress through implementing certain steps. The example of a conventional model is the ADDIE model that is based on such sequential steps as the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The similar model is the ASSURE model.
Practical models are organized to address the real-life learning process, and they are not based on certain steps, but the adaptation to circumstances is expected. Such models are often circular, and the example is the Interactive Model of Program Planning allowing the focus on the learners’ differences and flexibility in planning.
Radical models are based on the ideas of the social activism and the achieved transformation. Models are planned to reinforce cooperation of learners and their actions to change the situation. Thus, the main focus is on planning for the change. The example is the improved Integrative Model of Program Planning (Caffarella & Daffron, 2013).
Curriculum planning and design are based on the effective choice of strategies and models that can be used in order to help persons learn and develop their potential. Therefore, the discussion of the principles of the instructional design is closely associated with the idea of the effective learning. In order to help individuals learn effectively, educators chose to modify the traditional instructional models and also refer to practical and radical approaches.
Bastable, S. B., Gramet, P., Jacobs, K., & Sopczyk, D. L. (2011). Health professional as educator: Principles of teaching and learning. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Bean, C. (2014). The accidental instructional designer: Learning design for the digital age. New York, NY: American Society for Training and Development.
Caffarella, R., & Daffron, S. R. (2013). Planning programs for adult learners: A practical guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.