On the one hand, according to Klang et al. (2020), direct instruction refers to the explicit teaching technique, when the instructor presents content in front of the classroom. On the other hand, explicit instruction involves a step-by-step process showing students what and how to do (Klang et al., 2020).
Scaffolding is defined as an instructional technique, aimed at moving students toward deeper understanding and bigger independence in the learning process (Klang et al., 2020).
Multi-sensory instruction is a way of teaching with engaging one or more senses at the same time (Klang et al., 2020).
Explicit instruction and scaffolding are more advanced techniques and present a next step to the direct instruction (Klang et al., 2020).
With the usage of scaffolding, students with disabilities can obtain a greater sense of competence and independence, gradually progressing toward their educational goals.
Multi-sensory approach is specifically beneficial for students with learning disabilities and cognitive impairments who struggle in one and more areas of education (Klang et al., 2020).
When preparing instructions for students with intellectual disabilities, an instructor should remember to break down complex, multi-step requirements in easily manageable steps (Klang et al., 2020). Hands-on learning experience should be balanced with immediate feedback and patient supportive approach.
Multi-sensory approach is the most popular in art classes, such as drawing, music, and performing arts. Yet, it can be equally used in literature, Math, natural sciences, and social sciences with individual approach and teacher’s imagination.
I think that the most beneficial techniques for the instruction of students with intellectual disabilities are scaffolding, group instruction, and cooperative learning. Scaffolding allows to challenge the student toward his/her educational goals gradually, while group instruction provides individual support and collaborative approach from two professionals. Finally, cooperative learning teaches students with cognitive impairments practical skills and social integration.
Klang, N., Goransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Nilholm, C., Hansson, S., & Bengtsson, K. (2020). Instructional practices for pupils with an intellectual disability in mainstream and special educational settings. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 67(2), 151-166. Web.