Multiliterate Learners in School Environments


Identifying appropriate teaching approaches is a vital task for educators from various fields. Given that applying a valid teaching strategy can yield beneficial results for the learners, ensuring the appropriate comprehension of necessary materials provided by the tutor, choosing a relevant educational method should be conducted according to the pupils’ needs. However, to make such a critical decision, the teacher should be aware of the teaching approaches available for students of specific ages. Focusing on available literature and determining effective techniques can be highly advantageous for tutors, offering an insight into the theoretical and practical knowledge on the matter. In addition, observing productive lessons can promote understanding of key areas to consider and help enhance the educators’ skills.

I have observed a teaching practice conducted by a teacher in the presence of an integration aid. During this event, I have observed several teaching approaches utilized by the tutor, gaining additional knowledge on how various techniques can be integrated into the lesson to produce the most efficient outcomes. This paper presents a short overview of my observation, discussing teaching approaches in primary education and the gradual release of responsibility framework, analyzing the described practice, presenting the rationale for chosen moderation method, and explaining the concepts of multimodality and multiliteracies.

Teaching Approaches: Theory

The teaching practice that I observed was prepared for the children of 1/2 grade, who were 6 to 9 years old. Overall, there were 19 students in the classroom, out of which several had distinct ethnic backgrounds. In this regard, the learners were multicultural, which required the adaptation of specific methods to suit their cultural knowledge. In addition, there were some children with extra needs, which had to be covered by the teacher to ensure diversity and inclusivity, a crucial factor for creating a positive learning environment for young students (Moll et al., 1992). The resources included in the lesson were a whiteboard for presenting visual information and writing or drawing, as well as a television set to offer the students some interactive materials, such as videos or clips. The staff present at the lesson were a teacher and an integration aid, who observed the flow of the practice and intervened if any assistance on integration was required.

The Gradual Release of Responsibility

A vital approach to teaching to be discussed in the context of my observation is the gradual release of the responsibility model. This framework of instruction introduces a notion that cognitive workload should be integrated in such a way that allows the students to switch from modeling the teacher’s behavior to joint responsibility and then independent practice (Moll et al., 1992). In this model, the learner is expected to intentionally choose to change their practice. At first, the students typically follow the tutor’s actions, imitating the practice completed by the teacher to achieve the necessary result.

After that, however, it becomes essential to switch to a different strategy, namely joint responsibility, when both teachers and students participate in a suggested activity. As suggested by the gradual release of responsibility model, participating in the action together elicits the sway from fully relying on the teacher’s example to engaging in behaviors when responsibility is divided between the participating members. From this perspective, the students obtain partial responsibility, which is essential for successfully learning the needed materials. The next step of this framework requires that the students begin independent practice, relying on the skills they acquired to achieve the expected results (Moll et al., 1992). During this stage, the teacher cannot fully engage in the learners’ activities, as such involvement can prevent efficient skill retention.

Practice and Analysis

It is important to note that the teacher prepares for the lessons and chooses writing and mark-making methods in a way that better response to the theme. Consequently, he applied a strategy involving writing and reading proficiency at once for the children to be more engaged in focusing on the lesson’s topic. Therefore, the kids could immediately use the knowledge gained from the reading in practice. It should be noted that the teacher did not use individual notebooks, which should be typed for all students, but the board.

That is because this method enables to interest the learners and immediately understand which of them need the additional help of the teacher. Accordingly, Department for children, schools and families (2008) notes that promoting creativity and critical thinking are essential for children early. At the same time, incorporating various resources into lessons allows students to explore learning in the form of play. The trainer needs to enable children to share impressions and thoughts about the material they are learning, which will engage the entire group of kids in active learning. Department for children, schools and families (2008) identifies the main ways that can be used to engage students and focus their attention as movement, dance, music, and interactive whiteboards. Thus, it can be mentioned that the instructor has used the interactive method to enhance the children’s attention and critical thinking.

However, an additional significant difference between my observations and the literature research on this particular writing/mark making experience is that the teacher combines reading and writing in the same lesson. This is effective for reinforcing the material and applying it in practice. It is puzzling that the literature indicates one approach the instructor has used is cooperative learning (File, 2022). That is, the teacher only supervises the teaching of the material by the whole group and attaches the focus on which the kids should concentrate. Accordingly, with the interactive method, the students perform tasks and search for solutions to the challenges through collaboration.

The Description of the Teacher’s Work in Practice

It is essential to mention that the instructor attempted to combine two learning models in practice, specifically, shared and interactive. The teacher used YouTube videos and interactive whiteboards to explain information to the children in an interesting form. At the same time, he tried to engage all students in shared learning, but he asked each child separately about punctuation marks. In paragraph two, a responsibility model was described, which means that students can decide on essential issues while learning (Walsh, 2010). This can be accomplished if students learn critical information independently and the teacher becomes a mentor.

Moderation and Rationale

The Position on Modeling Learning

The teacher’s objective is based on the curriculum and the students’ individual characteristics to create fields of effective learning. Thus, The Victorian Curriculum’s Achievement Standard is an essential component for providing children with the knowledge they need for their age (Victorian curriculum and assessment authority). Accordingly, I would prepare an assessment of the abilities and basic methods of learning that meet the classroom’s needs. After that, I would review the plan I had prepared to determine the appropriateness of the curriculum and modify it.

Thus, kids must develop reading and writing comprehension skills at the elementary level. The Victorian Curriculum’s Achievement provides specific suggestions for effective instruction, such as demonstrating videos of familiar characters (Victorian curriculum and assessment authority). While observing the teacher, I noticed that he displayed a well-known cartoon to the kids. This helped enhance their understanding of the topic and complete the assignment. At the same time, the use of interactive whiteboards allowed the pupils to absorb new material with illustrations which is difficult to understand only by hearing. It is possible to see from the teacher’s practice that the instructor uses short and clear sentences when asking questions to the children. According to the program, this is the way that enables the students to understand the questions and answer them accurately in a few words. Hence, the combination of the individual needs of the class and the general program provides a successful way to moderate the learning process.

The Next Stage of Learning

Considering that children can be learning at home because of the pandemic, I would use FUSE resources. This would help ensure that students learn sounds, texts, and illustrations even during distance learning (Department of Education and Training). For example, I would develop their singing and reading abilities, which would help improve the formation of their own ideas and record them for presentation in class. Accordingly, through the method of play, students can learn songs and memorize long lyrics. Thus, I would devote the following lessons specifically to growing pupils’ memory.

The Strategy

I would use a writing strategy that developed each student’s abilities and encouraged them to find errors in the texts. Thus, I would suggest that pupils write their assignments on separate worksheets and compare their answers. This allowed them to find mistakes independently and manage their learning. This arrangement of instruction leads to children being able to compose easy texts on paper on their own, drawing not only on their previous learning but on the experience of other learners (Walsh, 2010). Moreover, using this strategy, it is possible to involve a presentation of students’ mistakes and successful entries on the board screen. In this way, the teacher can create an animated presentation indicating errors and offering methods for correcting them. I think this strategy is highly effective because the children will not feel criticized by the teacher, but they can act in the role of the instructor themselves. They will try to learn the material better to provide valid feedback about their classmates’ work.

At the same time, to make the objectives appropriate for the child’s age, I would use the method of reading texts. Accordingly, children would describe familiar places, events, and characters (Department of education and communities, 2011). Furthermore, to combine the development of writing and listening skills, I would include videos that children had watched before and propose that they write down specific matches, for example, that they point out all the oval objects in their letters. In this way, combining writing texts and discussing mistakes together would improve children’s writing proficiency.

Multimodality and Multiliteracies

It is significant to explain the terms used in the children’s learning plan. Multimodality expresses the complexity and interconnectedness of multiple ways of thinking, combining linguistic, visual, auditory, gestural, or spatial ways of perceiving information. Thus, it would be perfectly logical not to stop elaborating on only one method of learning but to include more in the learning process. The central feature of modern human beings is multiliteracy, where reading and writing are only a fundamental part of it. Today’s literacy involves not only the ability to read, write, and count but emotional and communicative, analytical, and predictive skills. It incorporates mathematical modeling and cultural and social connections. The concept of multiliteracy has evolved to explain how learning can prepare a person for life in society. According to this framework, the teacher’s assistance in enhancing the ability to understand and interpret texts improves children’s overall performance (Hill, 2010). This will affect their future participation in social activities and personal development.

A multimodal text is a document in which a communicative situation is presented by introducing several modalities of perception, specifically vision, and hearing. At the same time, such texts include pictures and graphics that enable the child to use visual memory and combinations of writing abilities. Such texts will permit pupils to strengthen their concentration and learn the material more quickly (Anstey and Bull, 2006). Moreover, the consequence of using such a method is an advancement in writing proficiency and others.

The Resources

When I observed the teacher, he used a considerable monitor to show videos from Youtube. This was helpful for the children because they were listening and following the development of the story of the three piglets. The instructor chose an excerpt where the wolf told his version of what had happened. Significantly, the children already knew the tale, which is why they were able to record punctuation marks. Thus, such a resource and teaching method is multimodal and multiliterate. Accordingly, the video provides an opportunity to use auditory and written proficiency for a single purpose. Moreover, the wolf’s story permits trainees to analyze the situation using their analytical and emotional abilities to assess the truthfulness of his words.

The Other Methods

In order to increase a child’s learning, it is possible to use several ways of perception in a multimodal text. This is because children have different levels of training and cannot perceive information qualitatively in the same amount of time. Thus, one can distribute more materials to the kids explaining the presentation on the screen. This will allow the students to review the points they did not understand again. At the same time, the instructor can interrupt the video and the presentation and explain the information previously presented. Accordingly, this will engage all students’ ways of absorbing knowledge to enhance their literacy learning.


Therefore, the instructor can use different teaching approaches to provide children with basic literacy skills. I have observed a teacher using video technology and whiteboards to engage students to focus on a project. Moreover, the delegation of authority to children, such as searching for errors in their tasks or classmates, helps reinforce what they have learned. Thus, I would use the practices suggested by the academic literature and by the teacher I observed in my practice.

Reference List

Anstey, M. and Bull, G. (2006) Defining multiliteracies, teaching and learning multiliteracies: Changing times, changing literacies. Newark: International Reading Association.

Department for children, schools and families. (2008) Mark making matters: Young children making meaning in all areas of learning and development. Web.

The department of education and communities. (2011) Text types. Web.

Department of education and training (n.d.) Early Childhood. Web.

File. 2022 Teaching approaches ece 330.

Hill, S. (2010) ‘The millennium generation: Teacher-researchers exploring new forms of literacy’, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10(3), pp. 314-340.

Moll, L. et al. (1992) ‘Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms’, Theory into practice, 31(2), pp.132-141.

Victorian curriculum and assessment authority (n.d.) Level D. Web.

Walsh, M. (2010) ‘Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?’, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 33(3), pp. 211-239.

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