Patricia Benner’s model is a philosophical and practical model that makes use of Drefus model to explain the process of skill acquisition in clinical medicine (Altmann, 2007). It is used as a framework to help nurse practitioners and students realize growth and development in their area of specialization. According to this model, to move from novice to the level of an expert, a nurse has to pass through five stages or levels of proficiency and these include: amateur, higher novice, competent, proficient then lastly excellent level. Not all nurses develop to be experts though. From the different stages of proficiency, the novice strictly follows protocols and rules and have no experience, the advanced beginner display average performance and standard work, competent individuals are planned, organized and focus on achieving the set goals within the stipulated time, proficient workers are those who have adequate knowledge and understanding of their profession and clear priorities and the experts have a good background knowledge, experience and expertise in their field of specialization (Carlson, 1989). Therefore, for a new nurse who is at the level of novice, he or she can refer to this model to gauge their performance and development over time. This model also helps one devise strategies to develop expertise in a given field of specialization.
In order to develop experience and acquire skills as a family nurse practitioner, I am required to practice the profession overtime so as to be acquainted with the processes and integrate knowledge and expertise as a nurse practitioner. Using Bennner’s model, I can evaluate and assess my development through the various levels of proficiency. This is attained by being able to differentiate between theory and philosophy and distinguishing theoretical and practical knowledge. I am expected to be conversant with the process of reasoning that helps in the development of skills. Banner suggests that one can develop intuition through education and working experience hence developing ability to reason and make vital decisions. There is the practical reasoning and theoretical reasoning that results in intention and belief respectively. The reasoning process entails abduction, induction or deduction reasoning. Benner also explains domains of nursing practices like effective management and administration which help improve the services offered by the nurses (Chatty, 2005). Hence this model can act as a framework to help one develop skills and expertise with the aid of a preceptor.
In conclusion, as a nurse practitioner, one is expected to have good morals and ethics and also adequate knowledge on clinical processes so as to excel in this field. This model on the other hand has shortcomings and critics like: it is not qualitative; it is hard to test it and has limitations in methodological procedures.
Altmann, T. (2007). An evaluation of the seminal work of Patricia Benner: theory or philosophy. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal For The Australian Nursing Profession, 25(1-2), 114-123. Web.
Carlson, L., Crawford, N., & Contrades, S. (1989). Nursing student novice to expert – Benner’s research applied to education. Journal Of Nursing Education, 28(4), 188-190.
Chatty, K. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. St. Louis, Mo: Elservier Saunders.