Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture

The article acknowledges the existing body of research on the topic of correlations between different parenting styles and levels of academic success. When stating its purpose, it references the current consensus in the educational and psychological fields that states that an authoritative parenting style is superior in its capacity to positively influence academic success. This observation provides a stark contrast to permissive and authoritarian styles alike, both of which have been found to affect the overall performance results negatively. However, the article highlights the lack of intersectional and culturally responsible research in the area, stating that the existing model of correlation might not work in non-Western societies. Its purpose is therefore to analyze the dynamics between parenting approaches and academic performance at school without the framework imposed by the European behavioral standard.

The research question of the article asks if authoritarian and permissive parenting styles correlate with better levels of academic performance when studied outside of British, American, and North European societies. It questions whether the negative correlation, established between academic excellence and authoritarian or permissive approach, has been interpreted objectively. In particular, the study wonders if these two approaches are correlated with worse academic performance due to being perceived as inferior by modern Western society. The article proceeds to ask whether the results can be different if the authoritative style of parenting is no longer viewed as the sole golden standard by society at large.

The article primarily large any distinct methodology of its own, operating as a literature review for an extensive body of international research. While conducting the analysis, the article points out how many of the families can’t fully fit into the four-style parenting model, exhibiting mixed characteristics. In comparison with further sources utilized for this annotated bibliography, it cites articles in languages other than English. This is a relevant research tool since the main goal of the project is to provide a non-eurocentric insight into the relationship between parenting approaches and academic performance. Additionally, it utilizes sources published over an extended period, between 1983 and 2017. Such a wide range of relevancy margin allows us to showcase an evolution of the school of thought and scientific perception of the titular issue by scientists throughout the world.

Results indicate the existence of a strong correlation between the beneficial elements of a certain parenting style and the cultural characteristics of a particular society. Certain traits of the approaches can benefit academic and general performance in one case but be obsolete within another culture. The article acknowledges the positive dynamic between authoritative parenting style and academic performance but makes a point to also link this tendency to the eurocentrism of the school system. Furthermore, it establishes that negative correlations between academic results and authoritarian or permissive parenting models are primarily found within British, American, and Northern European societies. Meanwhile, in countries where authoritarian parenting is regarded more warmly, such as India and China, it is entirely socially accepted and has correlations with academic success. Similarly, in Spanish schools, children that come from indulgent families that practice permissive parenting styles tend to demonstrate equally strong or stronger performances than their peers from authoritative households.

The purpose of this article is to discuss the correlation between the parenting style of the parent and the academic achievements their children are demonstrating at school. The article aimed to conduct a literature review of the relevant sources, as well as present its original research on the topic. It aims to study the correlation between authoritative and liberal parenting styles and the academic performance of children in relevant families. The article accounts also for the gender of the parent that practices the behaviors in question, operating under the assumption that authoritative parenting exhibited in mothers and fathers leads to different outcomes. The main purpose of the article’s research overall is to study the dynamics between familiar environment, external and internal sources of motivation, and the general academic achievement in an adolescent’s life.

The paper does not state its definitive research question however the direction of the research can be successfully deduced based on the article itself. It poses a longitudinal study that measures how both the degree and the type of parental involvement affect a teenager’s performance at school. The question is formulated under the established premise of the positive correlation between parental involvement in a child’s academic life and the quality of their performance. The article researches whether there is a statistically significant relationship between the style of parenting and the likelihood a parent of either gender demonstrates to be heavily involved in their child’s studies. The question also accounts for other factors of influence that may affect this likelihood, such as gender, social class, ethnic and linguistic origin, and level of parental education.

The article’s methodology is heavily reliant on a questionnaire that is further supported or disproven by data provided by partnering schools. The questionnaire was designed to measure the scale and style of parental involvement and was originally introduced by Robinson, Mandelco, Olsen, and Hart in 2001. To avoid any social desirability biases, it was delivered not to the parents, but to the adolescents themselves, who were able to report on the style and approaches their parents exhibited in casual situations. Bot primary and high school students were used as participants to test the impact produced by the typical difference in parental involvement. Statistically, it is likely to decrease with a child’s age, and accounting for this factor in the methodology allowed us to calculate any potential statistical dynamics. The results of the questionnaire were then combined with the data on the degree of parental involvement in school activities across different fields. The factors analyzed for the analysis included communication and cooperation with the school, involvement in extracurricular activities, and expectations of school initiatives.

Results of the research indicate a greater level of maternal involvement in nearly every significant area of a child’s life. The degree of a mother’s involvement in the school life of her child has shown to be comparatively high regardless of other factors of influence. In contrast, the level of the father’s involvement was tied significantly to his level of education, excluding a large subset of lower educated fathers from active involvement. The authoritative style of parenting, as indicated by the research, leads to a higher level of academic performance in an adolescent independently of the gender of the parent who exhibits it. Gender, however, comes into the analysis later, as the children of authoritative mothers are more likely to be heavily involved in extracurricular activities. In contrast, authoritative fathers often perceive them as insignificant and getting in the way of academic progress.

The purpose of the research is to examine the existing relationship between the authoritarian style of parenting and the academic achievement of school-aged children in Ghana. Authoritarian parenting involves clear behavioral communication, appropriate degrees of authority and discipline, high standards, and emotional support. Consecutively, it results in children simultaneously knowing the worth of their achievements and being respectful of authority figures, aiding them in establishing positive relationships at school. This, indirectly, further contributes to their positive academic performance, which additionally benefits from the non-contradictive motivation and desire to succeed and be rewarded. However, this dynamic requires further analysis in the context of non-Western societies, which are culturally different from the majority of the current body of research on the topic. The titular article tests its hypothesis of the positive correlation between the authoritarian approach and academic performance in the context of Ghana schools.

The research question was posed through the establishment of the hypothesis that claimed the existence of a positive correlation between a parent’s authoritativeness and successful academic performance at school. The concept of authoritative refers to one of the four major styles of parenting which involves high levels of expectations combined with a beneficial psychological environment. In particular, the research was concerned with potential limitations the pre-established positive correlation between these factors might have within a non-Western cultural context. By sampling specifics of centering the study in Ghana, the research, therefore, achieves greater precision and social value, becoming a cross-field analysis. The question is particularly specific about its cultural implications since the authoritative parenting style is less popularized outside of Europe and North America.

The methodology utilized in the article took advantage of the partnering approach, with researchers having contacted the three Ghana schools at the very beginning of the study. The dual survey was utilized, with separate questions designed for the teachers and the students. Teachers were asked to provide their commentaries on the academic potential and performance of their students, as well as the class records regarding the relevant assignment marks. Students were in turn surveyed on the parenting styles displayed towards them in their families, as well as their perception of school responsibilities and personal academic interest in relevant disciplines. The hypothesis already prioritized authoritative parenting, which methodologically transpired into the design of a separate scale that evaluated the level of parental authoritativeness in different areas. These areas included involvement, firm control and psychological autonomy availability. The data was then processed and analyzed through the variety of the descriptive statistical tools. Finally, the findings were subjected to correlational analysis to test the linear dynamics between variables. In particular, the presence of parents’ authoritativeness and high school grades were anlayzed for bivariate correlation.

Results indicate the strong and significant correlation between authoritativeness in both mother and father, and the levels of the academic achievement a child demonstrates. This result supports the research hypothesis, as well as the referenced literature body. In authoritarian households children have an access to warmth and emotional encouragements, but at the same time are being held to reasonably high standards. Furthermore, authoritative parents promote and encourage independence which statistically leads to better academic grades regardless of the school level and other factors of influence. Higher marks in assignments are predictably linked to functionate open communication, clear behavioral guidelines and respect for individual interests. This respect for individuality and personal initiative has been deemed one of the crucial factors as well, with authoritarian parenting model being criticized for being overtly restrictive. In its final sections the study comments on how it may limit a child’s natural curiosity and desire to learn.

The purpose of this research was to summarize and test different approaches to the relationship dynamic between the parenting style and the academic success for Malaysian social and educational context. Thus, the article begins with a literature review and the conceptual summary of conflicting viewpoints on how authoritarian and permissive parenting styles affect a child’s self-efficiency. In its introduction and purpose statement it links the academic performance to the concept of self-efficiency, which measures one’s confidence and belief in personal academic potential. Article attempts to ground this subjective concept in the parental style of the teenage respondents, since there is insufficient research into it due to the inherent subjectivity of the topic. Largely, self-efficiency is reliant on self-esteem, and therefore depends on many different factors including gender, social status and socioeconomic background.

The research in the article covered a total of five hypothesis that cover, from different perspectives, the relationships between parenting styles and self-efficiency of adolescents in the Malaysian context. The first hypothesis suggests the existence of positive relationship between the parental authority and the level of self-efficiency of an adolescent. Namely, the more authoritarian the parent is, the higher is the level of self-efficiency supposed in the adolescent. The second hypothesis suggests the negative relationship between a permissive parental style and the adolescent’s self-efficiacny. The third hypothesis states the existence of a negative relationship between an authoritarian parental style and the adolescent’s self-efficiency, with authoritative and authoritarian being different concepts. The fourth hypothesis states the existence of a positive relationship between permissive parental style and the self-efficiency level, being thus the opposite of the second. Finally, the fifth hypothesis suggests that male participants are generally more self-efficient. Each of the hypothesis outlined operates as a research question and was then tested in the titular article.

The study targeted 120 students between the ages of 16 and 21, with even numbers of men and women within the sample. The questionnaire provided was deliberately divided into two sections, with the section B dedicated to the research purposes, while section A obtained information on the participants. The information-specific questions aimed to determine the demographical characteristics of the sample further, to account for them at the data processing stage. The variables included age, gender, race and of the subjects, with the intention of intersectionally evaluate their reported levels of self-efficiency later on. The second section of the survey was evenly divided between self-efficiency questions and family parenting style questions. Later the self-efficiency scale was designed by the research team to measure the general levels of self-esteem demonstrated by the participants.

The statistical analysis indicated that an authoritative style of parenting was the most effective in relation to the self-efficiency development. The children of authoritarian parents were more confident in their academic and general abilities and overall tended to score higher. Correlation, as per the research results, amounted to 12.8% Yet while authoritative parenting style correlated with high levels of self-esteem, authoritarian parenting style has shown to be correlated with low levels of self-esteem.

All of the articles presented in this annotated biography emphasize the existence of links between the authoritative model of parenting and high level of academical achievement showcased by children and adolescents. Teenagers in different cultures have indicated their feeling of being supported and motivated within this parenting approach. The beneficial environment at home allowed them to effectively concentrate on school classes, while being confident they will be rewarded for their success by their parents. At the same time, authoritative parents’ attention to discipline and reasonable authority allowed them to avoid most of the downsides of the more permissive parents. Those tend to prioritize their children’s freedom over their important responsibilities and generally lack the dedication to aid their children in developing proper ambition, necessary for the academic excellence.

When analyzing the broader context of the articles in question and their implications for the educational and psychologic research it is essential to recognize the differences between authoritarian and authoritative style of parenting. Authoritarian style of parenting is characterized by high demands and low responsiveness, where a child is put under high levels of pressure but a parent refuses to communicate. Strictness within this parenting style often operates as excessive, partially due to lacking explanation and elaboration. Mistakes are punished harshly, but achievements and successes are not being rewarded, with parents instead perceiving them as nothing short of the absolute norm.

Authoritative style of parenting is characterized by high level of demand and high level of responsiveness. A parent expects a lot from their children academically and otherwise, but they are willing to contribute to their child’s progress and struggles. Authoritative parents, although strict, tend to ensure healthy communication within the family and do not withhold warmth and affection. Their punishments follow the goal of administering discipling and are never punishments for the punishment’s sake. Consecutively, their mixture of involvement and high expectations often motivates their children to do better at school out of other factors then simply fear of failure. In authoritative households mistakes might be punished but successes are also rewarded, creating a clear motivational paradigm for the adolescent.

Despite the fair criticism of the eurocentrism in the current parenting style correlational research, three out of the four articles indicate the continuous superiority of the authoritative approach. Outside of Western context, it is still proven to be linked to high levels of academic motivation and excellence. The very first article, however, comments on the way both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles may favour the academic performance, provided the system does not perceive them as negative. Nevertheless, it acknowledges the benefits of the authoritative style, arguing not that the other approaches surpass it, but that they can have equal footing if contextually possible.

One might argue, that outside of the respective correlations with parental involvement with school, there exists a relationship between academic performance and perceived parental love. In Western societies, both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles are currently viewed as extreme and lacking in elements necessary for a successful personal development of a child. These perceptions influence the self-esteem of children in authoritarian and permissive families, who within a certain context might they are not being fully loved, appreciated or protected. Consecutively, this feeling leads to the decrease in the morale and motivation to study, which does not happen with the fully accepted authoritative style. And yet, the correlation between the parental combination of strictness and warmth and the ability to excel at school is undeniable.

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ChalkyPapers. (2023, September 27). Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture.

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"Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture." ChalkyPapers, 27 Sept. 2023,


ChalkyPapers. (2023) 'Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture'. 27 September.


ChalkyPapers. 2023. "Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture." September 27, 2023.

1. ChalkyPapers. "Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture." September 27, 2023.


ChalkyPapers. "Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture." September 27, 2023.