School Libraries Effects on Student’s Achievement

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Overview of the Study

Student achievement is the key to any learning institution. The value obtained from learning activities is highly dependent on the environment and the materials available to the student during the learning process. Learning like any other job requires the use of the right technique tools. Learning activity like any other task requires application of the right techniques, tools, environment and motivation to attain the desired goals. Academic performance differs from one individual to another due to utilization of these elements in different or varying proportions. Learning has and is still a challenging issue to young scholars because they find it to be monotonous and a tormenting thing in their live. According to various studies and surveys done, negative perception about learning has been created by detrimental results obtained from application of unfavorable learning environment and inappropriate learning styles. Those studies have also revealed that, application of the best learning environment by learners has made them change their initial perception they had about learning (Brucato, 2005).

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Though different scholars apply different method to perform better and obtain value from their learning activities, the most crucial basis for their excellent performance rotates within the following factors; superb time management, commitment in their learning programs, comprehensive reading and frequent practices which acts as a reminder. Learning can be done in various environments. In these modern days where technology has been integrated in most learning institution, an individual can adopt virtual learning. This is where learning in done through the Internet, which acts as the interface between the student and the instructor. In addition, virtual environment the same way as the traditional physical library since learning materials can be accessed with easiness. The other learning environment is the physical or traditional learning environment. This is common in most learning institution and entails physical interaction among the parties involved (Reid, 1977). Each of the factors here has merits and demerits. For instance, virtual environment is much reliable in terms of learning material. Using search engines, one can obtain the required information with no much difficulty as compared to the physical environment. In a virtual environment, learner can access experts from different diverse regions who assist them in achieving excellent performance. Virtual environment does not involve physical congestion and disturbances as experienced in traditional learning environment. Virtual environment can be done in an appropriate place and time as compared to physical, which needs congregation of learners and an instructor. On the other hand, virtual environment does not allow cohesive relationship between the learner and the instructor. That is, one cannot judge the facial expression and body expression, which are essential in communication especially when learning (Brucato, 2005).

Despite the learning environment, one is operating in, time management and setting of goals play a major role in learning. To achieve excellent performance from learning, one has the best school libraries. For instance, a person aiming to improve his or her performance in English subject can first aim to improve his or her writing skills. This can be done through a through writing practice like composition, essay and report writing. Those aiming to improve in mathematics should thoroughly engage in mathematical tests. These can form short-term goals, which can be achieved through short-term mission or plans. The overall performance will definitely improve as the short-term goals are attained (Reid, 1977).

Apart from School Libraries and plans of learning improvement, time management forms the base for achieving these short-term goals. The time available for the overall mission of learning should be divided in terms of programs, which helps the learner to accomplish the whole task of learning. Through time management, rushing and poor preparation for examination and other tests are lowered. Students have ample time for comprehensive reading as well as note taking. Widespread and comprehensive reading together with note taking correlates directly with one’s academic performance. This is because the human brain records and retains more when extra body senses are involved while learning (Brucato, 2005).

The toughest and the most crucial time for a learner are during preparation for and taking exams. Various students find it hard to concentrate in such times due to poor application of learning techniques. Atmosphere constructive to learning should be selected in such times. While studying, one should take interval breaks. According to various researches done, they have shown that a human being can concentrate for approximately 25 to 30 consecutive minutes while studying. As a result, one should take breaks to allow room for refreshing the mind. In addition, the status of the body determines how learner’s mind retains information read. For example, a hungry, sick or a tired individual can rarely concentrate in his or her studies. Therefore, one should honor his or her body status. Learners should try to minimize incidences, which may frustrate them while studying. For example students undertaking mathematical related subjects, are encouraged to tackle less challenging question progressing to “hard” ones. Through this, they will gain confidence and morale to approach the next question. Revision and practice forms the key factor in academic performance since a learner resuscitates the brain to remember what has been read for a certain period. Students taking exams should embrace this for excellent academic performance (Reid, 1977).

In adults, learning potentials can be fully exploited when the objectives of the learner are aligned to their personal or life goals. Such learners have a wide range of experiences from their past activates hence an instructor or teacher should try to make the professional being undertaken by the learner is relevant and real in application. The subject should not be provocative to their competencies as this may make them quit the learning programs (Brucato, 2005).

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Various studies have shown that, for effective learning and academic excellence, there must be mind body connectivity. Physiological functioning of an individual’s body forms part of the learning system. Coordination between the body and the mind help learners to face challenges, pay attention and formulate solutions to those challenges. Settled emotions and connectivity between the body and the mind assist the development of mental acuity and mental longevity. In a learning environment, body movements and postures may determine how one develops his or her mental acuity. For example, fidgeting, whistling and laying down while reading may offer poor body-mind coordination limiting the capacity of retention (Blakely, 2008).

Learning environment significantly determines the learning potentials achieved by the learner. Poor learning environment accrues poor performance while constructive learning environment accrues brilliant results to the learner. Learning environment entails availability or resources essential for learning and how those resources are managed and utilized to attain a valuable product. Such resources include; learning aid materials like a book and teachers or instructors (Reid, 1977).

Research Problem

The last century has seen much advancement in the Libraries being used in the schools. The School Libraries have the potential to affect the practice of the teachers and it positively taps the student achievement potential. The School Library can easily be regarded as one of the most pervasive and far fetching materials, which has positively influenced both the teaching and learning. The School Libraries makes the provision of the opportunities available to the students and teachers, which were not possible in a school without a library.

As schools continue to acquire more and better materials, the benefit to students will be increasingly and will depend on the skill with which some librarian uses in planning the library. It is not confirmed, however how the online library will blend with the pre existing beliefs about the teaching methods and strategies of the teachers. It is very necessary that the knowledge about the beliefs and values of the teacher should be taken into account. The teacher’s skills can be greatly enhanced with the help of well-equipped School Libraries. The resources and investments that different governments and other institutions are using to enable Schools have Libraries are of little use.

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Significance of the Study

It is in this context that this study is significant. Trough highlighting the different views from various groups, a more objective conclusion can be reached that is neither biased nor insufficiently informed about the perspective of one perspective versus the other. This is very significant due to the obvious link between correct and sufficient information and the ability to access the School Libraries. Thereby, much of the research on the subject is either supportive or critical of the effects of School Libraries and does help in student achieved, as this study hopes to accomplish in a concise and accessible manner.

Research Purpose and Questions

The following are the research questions to be used in the study.

  1. Do libraries affect the students’ performance on final exam?
  2. Are students motivated by the existence of a well-furnished library with a well-trained librarian?
  3. Do schools have adequate funding to manage school libraries?

Definition of Terms

School library – is a building, which houses academic materials used by students and teachers. The materials include books, computers for online services, DVDs, Magazines, Journals and Newspapers.

School librarian – a person in-charge of the library.

No Child Left Behind – an education system applied in the U.S.

Literature Review

The impact of New York’s School Libraries on student achievement and motivation by Ruth V. Small, Laura J. and L. Douglas Meredith, published in the year 2007.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of school libraries on students achievement in New York. The research had to study various library programmes on the impact of students in New York. It also looked at impact of school libraries on students’ motivation to achieve high grades. The study was to provide results that were to be used in designing library services for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) programmes. NCLB Programmes have succeeded in many areas but the impact of libraries was yet to be determined. The research was also to find out whether there were enough library services in various urban schools in New York, State and their impact on students with disabilities.

Description of the sample

The research targeted 4,293 schools in New York, which were public schools. From the schools the librarian and the principle was the main respondent. The data was obtained from New York State of department of education and 4,200 schools responded. The schools received questionnaires and only 1612 responded.

Instrumentation used

A questioner was sent to schools where the principle and librarian were supposed to respond and they responded adequately. The survey instrument that was sent through online had 65 multiple choice questions for the recipient to answer.

Data collection procedures

Data was collected via online from the questionnaires that were sent out. This was in-debt survey focusing on the public schools only.

Data analysis

Data, which was received, was analyzed using SPSS. Coefficient of correlation was calculated to find the relationship between a school library and student performance. Other data analysis tools that were employed included T-test, ANOVA, Chi-test and F-test was calculated.


The research finds out that there was a relationship between a student performance and library services offered by a public school. The type of librarian in the school also affected the students’ performance. There was a correlation coefficient of 0.451 for the impact of library services to the student. The research found out that a well-trained librarian is able to select the best materials for school libraries. Students of fourth grade performed well in schools that have a well-trained librarian with good books. On motivation, the research found out that the type of library was influential in motivating students to perform well. Students perceived a good library as a gateway to success. On this, there was F of 39.07 at 100% significance level (Small, Laura and Meredith. 2007).

On administration of a library the research, find out that a good administration of the library contributed greatly to the success of the student in school. It also found out that most school lacked enough facilities, which helped students with disability to allow normal classroom inclusion (Small, Laura and Meredith. 2007).

Texas school libraries: Standard, Resources, Services and students performance by Ester G. Smith published in the year 2001.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to find out what type of services, resources were offered by school libraries in the state of Texas. The research intended to find out whether the state had standards, which were to be followed by schools in equipping their libraries. It also intended to find out the impact these libraries had on academic performance of students. The research was to measure the number of the students who made a certain requirement from schools with libraries and those lacked adequate library services. Lastly, it aimed to find out the standards of libraries that were used by those schools that were performing well in the state of Texas (Smith, 2001).

Description of the sample

The sample was Texas schools, which was comprised of 7467 schools in which only 600 schools were selected. The school consisted of 327 elementary school 120 junior high schools, 139 High schools and 14 elementary secondary schools.

Instrumentation used

A questionnaire was prepared and sent out to 600 schools and 503responses were received. The questionnaire was sent to the school accompanied with a cover letter, a return address fully addressed and stamped. After sometime, the schools were remained of the need to return the questionnaire.

Data collection procedures

The data was received from 503 librarians while some data was collected from Texas education agency containing the academic performance of the school in the past, student characteristic, district and school financial strength. The other data was collected from Federal Reserve Board in relations to schools students’ census and income levels of parents.

Data analysis

Data, which was collected, was analyzed using statistical tools of test of statistical significance bivariate correlation, partial correlation, factor analysis and regression. These tools provided the answer that was required by the study. In test of significance, 95% of significance level was used to determine whether there was significance in the result. Bivariate correlation, which was used, determined the relationship between the valuable. A positive correlation was considered to have a positive relationship while negative was considered that there was no relationship. Partial correlation measured the relationship of valuable in affecting each other. Factor analysis helped to determine which of the factors contributed more to the performance of students in school. Regression analysis helps to establish a relationship between valuables that were considered in the research (Smith, 2001).


It was found out that schools that had libraries and good librarians performed well than those schools without libraries or good librarians. Almost 90% of students from schools with good libraries and well trained librarian performed well as compared to those schools that had no library or trained librarian. It also found out that the social economic aspect of student affected the performance of students. Schools that usually purchased books regularly had good measure of performance for their children. Most of the students who did not need the states academic achievement were those schools, which had poor libraries, lacked funding for library services, had poor librarians and the libraries were inadequately supplied with resources. Libraries, which had online services helped to increase chances of students performing well as opposed to those libraries, which had no, or in accessible library services (Smith, 2001).

Public school libraries: There history, curriculum, and impact on students achievements by Vandehaa, Dale in the year 2005. Kennedy – Western University.

Purpose of the study

The study aimed at studying the impact of school libraries on students’ achievement in Des Moines community schools. The research was prompted by the fact that funding for schools in the area had dramatically been reduced, therefore reducing the number of books that were been supplied to schools and the type of librarians the schools were employing. The schools in the areas had started in under achieving in academic performance therefore the research became necessary (Vandehaa, 2005).

Description of the sample

The sample consistence of schools in Des Moines, which included high schools, and lower schools.

Instrumentation used

The data was collected by an employee to the department who observed the happenings in the area. The writer of the article was supposed to work as a coordinator responsible for collecting data from the area.

Data collection procedures

Data was collected from existing sources no primary source was utilized in collecting the data that was used by the writer. The database that was utilized a secondary data for this study was from Iowa Test Basic Skills references materials, which are found in Des Moines district.

Data analysis

The data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics tools.


The research found out that there was impact of the library on student performance. The aim of the research was find out the impact of a trained librarian on the student. The librarian had a great impact on the students’ performance because the influence he had in choosing books that will be used in the library. The scores for the students with librarians showed that the performance was well above board. Hispania’s and Latinos students performed well above other students regardless of the library services there had or the type of librarian that there had. From the research, the researcher concluded that performance did not only depend on library but also a race determined. The researcher compared various races and their scores in terms of performance of students. The minority groups appeared to be performing poorly at all levels regardless whether there was a library service or not (Vandehaa, 2005).

Impact of school libraries on students achievements: a review of the research by Lonsdale, Michelle in the year 2003. A report for the Australian School Library Association. Published by Australian Council or Educational Research.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the research was to find out whether there existed a relationship between students’ performance and library services in the area. It was also aimed at finding out strategies that would be used by Australian educational department in improving quality of education in the area (Sharpe, 1985).

Description of the sample

The research did not collect data from primary source but considered a range of research papers from Australia and abroad from the year 1990.

Instrumentation used

The researcher used secondary data in carrying out the analysis.

Data collection procedures

The materials were from Journals, magazines, libraries and from online sources.

Data analysis

Data was analyzed qualitatively because there was no primary source employed by the researcher in analyzing his data


The research found out that there was a great impact on the library on student performance. Students who had library services were found to be performing well than students who lacked libraries. The research discovered that a student attending a school with well-equipped library with well-trained staff and had well funded performed well. The performance of the students was not affected by the socioeconomic status or academic level of parents. Online services in the library also contributed to the student’s performance in the schools. When it comes to quality of books that were in the library the research found out that the librarian influenced the type of books that were to be found in the library and there were one of the factors that were enlisted as boosters of students performance. The relationship between the librarian and the classroom teacher played an important role for the students, as they were able to access school library easily. Therefore, the performance of the students depended heavily on the school’s library (Sharpe, 1985).

School libraries and student achievement in Ontario Canada by Queen’s University and People for Education in 2006

Purpose of the study

The aim of the study was to find out the impact of school libraries on students performance. The research looked at the impact of library resources and librarians on the student’s attitudes towards learning and reading. This was measured using the education quality grades in Ontario.

Description of the sample

The research considered 880 schools in Ontario in students of grade 3 and 6. Out of 880 schools, 22% of the schools were elementary schools and 707 schools responded to the data.

Instrumentation used

A questionnaire was used by people for education in carrying out research from these schools.

Data collection procedures

The data was collected and tabulated using survey method of data collection.

Data analysis

Data was analyzed using stepwise regression to find out the relationship between valuables.


The research found out that the library staff contributed to improvement in reading performance of students in grade 3. This means that most students were influenced by the librarian to study. The student who were in schools with a trained librarian scored higher than those students were from a schools with the librarian who was not well trained. Students enjoyed reading when the teacher and librarian were in good terms however those classes where the teacher had a bad relationship with the librarian students performed poorly in reading. The school libraries were found to have substantial influence in the student performance in both reading and final scores. Schools that had libraries increased chances of their students succeeding in academic as compared to those schools that had no library services (Queen’s University and People for Education. 2006).

Funding of the school libraries were found to influence the type of books to be put in the library and the type of librarian to employ. However, it was found out that various region in Ontario had varying library services due to socioeconomic status of the population of the area.

The impact of Michigan School Librarians on academic achievement: Kids who have library succeed by Rodney Marcia, Lance Keith Curry and Hamilton – Pennell Christine. Published by library of Michigan 2003.

Purpose of the study

The aim of the study was to find out the impact schools librarians had on the students’ performance.

Description of the sample

The sample for the study consisted of students from elementary schools, middle schools and high schools. The schools, which were considered for the study, were 278 for grade 4, 201 for 7th grade and 250 for 11th grade.

Instrumentation used

The data was collected using survey tools where a questionnaire was sent out to collect the data from the students.

Data collection procedures

The data was collected through survey method of data collection where questionnaire were sent out to various schools in Michigan in order to get the data and attitudes of students towards the school librarian. The survey sent out to schools included questionnaire for library hours, library staff whether the library had computer facilities and how often they used the library.

Data analysis

The data received was tabulated and analyzed using statistical tools such as correlation, T-test, and ANOVA.


The researcher found out that the school library and the librarians in that library had an impact in the students’ success. This was as a result of the librarian ability to control the usage of books, open and close library at a specific times, influenced the type of books to be purchased in the library. Libraries, which had flexible operating times contributed greatly to the student’s success. The research, which was carried out, compared the performances of various schools and the type of librarian they had (Rodney, Lance and Hamilton – Pennell, 2003).

Capitalizing on school library potential to positively affect students’ achievement: sampling resources for administrators by Hartzell Gary. Published by University of Nebraska at Omaha, 2002.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the paper was to find literature relating to the impact of library on students performance. Various articles and journals were listed as possible literature for the study.

Description of the sample

In this case, over 300 articles were collected containing the impact of library services on students’ performance.

Instrumentation used

Secondary resources were considered. Various samples of literatures were collected from website libraries, journals and books.

Data collection procedures

The samples were listed and prepared for usage in the literature review.


Various articles were collected on evidence of quality of school library and effect of students’ performance. Other articles which were collected related to the returns that will be an accrued in terms of students achievement through the collaboration between the class teacher and the librarian. The data was also collected on the performance of technology in helping students gain (Hartzell, 2002).

The impact of school library service on student achievement and implication for advocacy: A review of literature by Christopher Chan, 2008.

Purpose of the study

The aim of the research is carry out literature review on impact of library services on students’ performance. In this research, paper there was no research sample but various papers were used in the analysis.

Description of the sample

The population in this study was a culmination of 200 educators and 10 High School graduates Group (B) selected from a total 53 respondents. The population 1 consisted of (53) participants that completed the survey. The researcher’s criteria for this sample includes: 1) “The population must be Educators in Secondary Educators teaching Core Subjects, and Physical Education; 2) High School Graduates from Inner City Schools; 3) Sample size has to be greater than or equal to 10 participant members in each group; 4) The participants will be placed in group A and group B. The population was selected from respondents that reside in Houston, Texas, and has graduated from HISD inner city schools. The total number of respondents was from a sample of 53. Twenty-Seven were of African-American descent, 10 were Caucasian, and 16 were Latino. In Group A, there were four

Instrumentation used

The type of survey was in the form of a Likert scale survey. The Liker scale questionnaire is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires, and is the most widely used scale in survey research; it consisted of a series of declarative statements where respondents specify their level of agreement (Chan, 2008).

Data collection procedures

The instrument consists of a Letter of authorization introducing the students as a student in the Educational Leadership and Counseling Program.

Data analysis

The data was measured using the Chi-square statistic analysis. A hypothesis is presented and trials are conducted on a group of respondents. The Chi-square uses a formula that checks for a predetermined alpha level of significance of (0.05). If the p-value or probability level falls below (0.05) when measured against the Chi square distribution table with 1 degree of freedom then the hypothesis has an accepted significance level of confidence and if it exceeds the (0.05) significance level there is reason to reject the null hypothesis (see Table 7). The Chi-square statistic uses the following the data: 1. Observed responses subtracted from the expected responses are squared and divided by the expected responses. The sum of all the values for (O-E) x square gives the chi square statistical analysis or predetermined level of significance.


The research was to find out achievements of students with library services. The research found out that the influence on student performance was not only based school library but with other factors.

Review of Findings

There was a correlation between academic achievement and qualified librarian in high schools meaning that the librarian is an important factor in academic achievement among schools. The Schools library opening hours was also seen to play an important role in affecting the students’ performance in school. The online services that were offered by the school played also an important role to the academic achievement according to the research. Print collections such as journals, magazines and newspapers were another factor that was seen as influential to the students liking to reading


This chapter will present the research design and methods to test the hypothesis of the study as well as presenting in sufficient detail the other aspects of the study methodology such as purpose of the study, design, methods and the appropriate data analysis methods for the most conclusive results.

Understanding of the Research Approach

This study will use the quantitative and comparative methodological approach to understand the relationship between the two variables of school library and student achievement. Specifically, the research design will correlate the usage of school library with the effects to test the hypothesis that school library affects the student performance.

Throughout the research conducted during this dissertation, the writer will have to pay careful attention to issues of objectivity. It is important to avoid objectivity in order to take a non-biased approach at explaining the issues in question. Generally, research is done based on theoretical framework in which empirical evidence is then applied to those theories. However, considering the fact that research concerning the impact of school library on student achievement is fairly lacking in detail, theories are also somewhat lacking. In order to develop theories, data will be collected from various books, journals and studies. Once the data has been compiled, I will then seek to add evidence to theories relating to the fact that certain factors influence the success of the students.

The research design is a correlational design utilizing survey methodology and comparison of current scientific findings from scholars with different perspectives. It is important to note that this study cannot claim one variable caused high student achievement, as other factors have not been examined to determine this fully and objectively. Thus, this study can only examine whether school library is related to student achievement and draw conclusions based on the findings. Attributing cause and effect is however beyond the scope of this study’s size. Thereby, because the analyses are based on correlation and not true experimental design with randomization, cause and effect cannot be attributed without losing academic objectivity and hence jeopardizing the credibility of this study.

Secondary Research

Secondary research is an important aspect of the data collection process. This stage allows for the collection of facts, which helps to provide answers to important research questions. Secondary data provides a broad overview of the subject in question, which helps develop a general understanding of the research topic. Secondary data is extremely useful when searching for a past analysis of the school library relationship with students’ achievement. The source of this secondary data will be taken from various databases, relevant books, peer reviews and any other outlets that may provide a better understanding of the relationship between the students’ performance and school library. The internet has also been a great source for the collection of secondary data as it is filled with various online journals and peer reviewed articles.

Primary Data

Once the secondary data has been sorted through and properly researched, the next stage will be to develop the primary data. Primary data can be collected from interviews, observations and a thorough analysis of any relevant data. During this phase of the research, there may be a significant change from the secondary data or they may be no change at all. This stage consists of doing the primary research including, but not limited to, contacting schools, state departments of education and surveying them on their thoughts concerning the student’s achievements and school library. This requires putting together my own data and comparing them to the data of the secondary data to see if there are any significant differences. This will enable me to gain a better understanding of the topic so that I can improve upon my knowledge of the subject area. Primary data will be my main source of data considering the fact that my choice has of models has been the observation model. Using this model, I will do my best to observe trends and conduct as many personal interviews as I can during the length of this project.

Limitations of the Design

The greatest challenge of conducting a content analysis study is that it is not possible to access all relevant material related to the selected topic. Although a thorough search was preformed and resources were compared against one another, there might be some critical research, which was left out. The main reason for this limitation is the sheer volume of research material, which is available, as well as a lack of time. As well with the internet, there is a constant influx of material thus making it harder to distinguish useful material from useless material.

References List

Blakely, N. (2008). Adult education: issues and developments, New York: Nova Publishers.

Brucato, M. J. (2005). Creating a learning environment: an educational leader’s guide to managing school culture. Oxford: R&L Education Publishers.

Chan C. (2008). The impact of school library service on student achievement and implication for advocacy: A review of literature.

Hartzell G. (2002). Capitalizing on school library potential to positively affect students’ achievement: sampling resources for administrators. University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Lonsdale M. (2003). Impact of school libraries on students achievements: a review of the research. Published by Australian Council or Educational Research.

Queen’s University and People for Education (2006). School libraries and student achievement in Ontario Canada. Queen’s University and People for Education.

Reid, R. (1977). Environment and learning: the prior issues, London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press Publishers.

Rodney, M., Lance, K. & Hamilton – Pennell C. (2003). The impact of Michigan School Librarians on academic achievement: Kids who have library succeed. Library of Michigan.

Sharpe, C. (1985). How to Create a Good Learning Environment. New York : American Society for Training and Development Publisher.

Small, R., Laura J. & Meredith. L. (2007).The impact of New York’s School Libraries on student achievement and motivation

Smith, E. (2001) Texas school libraries: standards, resources, services and students performance. Texas state library and archives commission

Vandehaa, D. (2005). Public school libraries: There history, curriculum, and impact on students achievements. Kennedy – Western University.

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