Undoubtedly, the responsibility of a teacher is to teach, and that of a student is to learn. This extremely basic perspective of the classroom makes no distinction between what some kids learn well in the classroom and what other students simply need to do to finish another year of school. If the amount of time spent learning is the best indicator of future happiness and fulfillment for the students as they get into maturity, then successful classrooms go beyond examination scores. Effective classrooms encourage curiosity and learning inspiration, active contribution, and increased stages of engagement. Instructors in these environments are knowledgeable about both the material to be covered in the classroom and the effects their instruction has on students’ capacity to become self-directed, lifelong learners. This paper includes a review of research-based articles which outlines the various causes of disruptive behavior, ways of preventing disruptive behavior, and the teacher’s role in classroom management.
The definition of disruptive behavior is too broad to be given here. This is because it includes a variety of disrupting action types, categories of doers, causes, justifications, and most importantly, who is being disrupted. It depends on the principles that society upholds. However, it gets more problematic when it happens in a pluralistic culture where family values and school ideals can diverge. According to Nanyele’s concept, there are two broad categories of behavior in schools: externalized behavior and internalized behavior (Nanyele et al., 2018). Students that exhibit externalized behavior run the risk of disrupting class, other students, and teachers.
On the other hand, internalized describes a profile of introversion or problems that typically shows itself as dread, concern, or complaint. The result of this internalized behavior is frequently disengagement from society. Namgyel chose to characterize disruptive behavior using four criteria (Wangdi & Namgyel, 2022). These criteria include interfering with teaching and learning activities; violating the rights of other learners; creating a hostile or unsafe environment; and causing property damage. According to Namgyel, there are three categories of disruptive behavior in children: behavior in the classroom; behavior classified as a disorder; and behavior that becomes criminal (Wangdi & Namgyel, 2022). Acting in a disruptive manner simply means acting in the opposite of what the teacher or other students in the class would like.
Disruptive behavior is sometimes referred to as incivility in other contexts. Every activity disrupts the harmony and conducive learning environment in the classroom. However, in other instances, disruptive behavior cannot simply be criticized. It speaks on how to handle students that have specific needs, for example, students making noise whenever the task given to them is hard. One of the top issues that teachers and school officials express concern about is disruptive conduct in the classroom. It is believed that having disruptive conduct or discipline difficulties in the classroom harms kids’ academic performance and learning. The effects extend beyond students. Researchers have claimed that disruptive classroom behavior is one of the reasons that negatively affect instructors’ attitudes toward teaching (Şanli, 2019). They have noted that when students engage in disruptive classroom behavior, teachers become less interested in teaching. Additionally, it is believed that disruptive behavior on the part of students negatively impacts instructors’ physical, mental, and emotional health as well as their capacity to instruct kids.
Causes of Disruptive Classroom Behavior
Disruptive behavior at school can be impacted by some internal forces. The number of students engaging in disruptive behavior, the size of the class, the absence of teachers, the lack of respect for human dignity, and the use of result-based education are some of these factors (Nanyele et al., 2018). Incorporating family values; prior traumatic experiences; strained relationships with particular educators; the impact of society’s lack of discipline; and parents’ lack of tolerance and responsibility are some external factors that have an impact (Nanyele et al., 2018). More specifically George developed factors that are related to cognitive capacity, the relevance of schoolwork, contrastive belief against school management, and quest for peer approval that lead to disruptive behavior in the classroom.
Despite several findings of these reasons and contributing elements, it is essential to remember that each case has unique viewpoints that must be considered thoroughly without resorting to generalizations or stereotypes. In the context of the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom, low levels of student engagement and learning disabilities are contributing factors to behavior issues (Bozkuş, 2021). These disabilities are caused by students’ difficulties understanding linguistic skills in the English language (George, 2017). Attention-seeking when students try to get the attention of teachers and peers, and exhaustion are other contributing factors.
Preventing Disruptive Behavior
Even while speaking out of turn and participating in off-task behavior are among the most common low-level student infractions, research links these disruptions to teacher stress which harms the learning atmosphere and lowers student engagement. Effective behavior management techniques are therefore essential for both teacher wellbeing and academic success. To ensure that effective learning takes place, a good learning environment in the classroom must be carefully balanced with rules, play, and discovery. Although discipline is a component of classroom management, it is ideal to have strong teacher management and careful preparation that aims to avoid or reduce misbehaviors from happening.
An efficient teaching method to boost student engagement by reducing inappropriate behaviors is the Positive Learning Framework (PLF), which employs a three-phase model of inhibition through self-actualization and administration, lesson plan, and helpful action plans. Following the PLF, teachers are in charge of establishing a secure and encouraging learning environment (George, 2017). In this learning environment, the social and physical aspects of learning have been carefully considered before any pupils have even entered the room. Preventive measures include things such as seating arrangements, classroom displays, group assignments, and a clear explanation of the rules, routines, processes, and penalties.
The same holds for lesson plans that integrate effective teaching with student engagement. These include active and joint learning, the use of inspirational hooks, and the provision of different platforms for representation and expression. While preventative measures are essential for reducing inappropriate behavior, instructors must be skilled at creating and implementing the proper corrective measures when called for. In addition to minimizing disturbance to the lesson’s flow, several low-level reactions, such as closeness, non-verbal cues, and eye contact, give teachers the flexibility to increase responses following the seriousness of the misbehaviors as needed.
Although the PLF is implemented by teachers, appropriate classroom behavior norms should be developed collaboratively with student involvement. In this process, the 4Rs of rules and routines are presented as duties and privileges. Students find more significance in classroom behavior norms that are developed from a common set of values than in a rigid set of rules that the teacher imposes. Additionally, by framing instructions as a set of rights that pupils are accountable for defending, teachers give students a sense of agency in classroom organization as well as a taste of democracy.
With characteristics like congestion and noise representing various contributors to chaotic learning environments, physical features of the classroom have a significant impact in either encouraging or impeding learning. Activities meant to promote the production of knowledge through hands-on inquiry tend to cause chaos when combined with small classroom sizes and high student populations, which results in disruptive behavior and students wandering off task. Although the careful organization of programs and space is required, group work is essential to education. The design of events and the locations where learners will complete them should be taken into account when organizing lessons to prevent overcrowding.
Strategies to Monitor Disruptive Behavior
Step-by-step techniques were advanced by Baral and Khadka to manage the disruptive behavior. The above involve of how clearly one is able to outline the concerned issue (Baral & Khadka, 2021). This explanation effort needs to be made in collaboration with the problem solver and other pupils. Understanding causes, such as physical causes, emotional obstacles, and environmental issues, is the next step. The next step is changing instructor and student behavior. Written policies, teacher empowerment, the development of excellent and effective conflict management, and managing good cooperation amongst stakeholders are all ways to deal with this behavior. These tactics can be tailored to the case and circumstance because disruptive behavior is not only present in young learners but those enrolled in higher education. The most crucial lesson made in the preceding steps is that a thoughtful strategy must be taken when dealing with disruptive behavior. The pursuit of the fact must come before any emotionally charged or private conduct.
Teacher Roles in Classroom Management
A system of shared tasks and responsibilities between teachers and students leads to successful classrooms. These roles and responsibilities, which are supported by theoretical viewpoints, fall under four major categories of classroom practice. These areas comprise classroom training and learning, managing student behavior in the classroom, and the physical and social components of the classroom environment. One of the most crucial aspects of the teaching-learning process is classroom management.
It is thought that competent classroom management aids in creating a supportive and productive learning environment, enhances student learning outcomes, deals with students who have behavioral concerns, and aids in reducing disruptive behaviors among students. For these reasons, research on classroom management is now a popular topic in the realm of education. Previous research on classroom management has revealed several evidence-based tactics (Wangdi & Namgyel, 2022). To successfully run classes and ensure that students learn, teachers need to be knowledgeable about strategies for dealing with disruptive behavior in the classroom.
Generally, disruptive behavior occurs when pupils act in a way that interferes with learning and the teacher’s directions. The most frequent disruptive behaviors among students include making inappropriate gestures, interacting with peers, acting physically and verbally aggressively, moving around the classroom, yelling, and disregarding the rules. Given that unruly behavior in school is an issue that instructors of all generations must deal with, numerous research investigations have been carried out to determine its origins and identify potential intervention measures.
For the academic advantage of their pupils, teachers should establish safe, respectful, and comprehensive learning atmospheres. Characteristics like kindness, compassion, and thoughtful are just a few that help to establish this safe learning environment. It encourages learning and gives teachers a chance to connect with each student personally. Teachers must have a thorough awareness of their pupils, their learning styles, and their areas of interest to deliver effective education. Teachers can design courses to maximize engagement and encourage independence and ownership of learning by realizing that all learners approach education differently and have a variety of choices for instruction. This allows students to pick excellence and proficiency as their educational goals.
It is essential that teachers promote genuine, respectful interactions among their students. Educators are responsible for explicitly communicating expectations regarding reciprocal care and respect for others as well as for modeling appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication. Elevated levels of active learning, motivation, and resiliency are encouraged by the development of social skills, friendships, and peer acceptance. To protect against misconduct, bullying, racial prejudice, negative preconceptions, and misuse, an instructor should judgmentally evaluate their prejudices, and be conscious of any fundamental adverse defiance prevailing in the classroom. Both teachers and students must cooperate and work together in a setting that respects diversity and encourages an interest in others.
Competence in thought, deed, and communication among teachers is an expectation and a necessity that must be met by them in their capacity as teachers. As their actions and inactions, replies and negotiations are all observed and communicated, teachers serve as models of perfect and suitable replies to their friends, parents, and children regularly. When teachers are unprepared, tardy, and disorganized in class, they cannot expect their pupils to behave differently if this is the behavior, they are modeling for them. Teacher behaviors reinforce and create the expectation of students’ behavior.
Although a teacher’s job is to help others learn, they too continue to study throughout their lives and work to advance both their professional and personal practices for the advantage of their current and forthcoming learners’ education. Pupils give educators continual chances to reflect on and develop themselves, as well as chances to consider how they addressed a subject and how well they engaged with their students. Investigating the learning process of learners shifts the emphasis away from teaching and assessment and validates students as complex and unique learners. It gives teachers insight into the methods that students utilize to find meaning.
Despite having to fulfill the National Curriculum’s criteria, educators should not let this constrain their ability to educate in the classroom. Making learning appropriate, engaging, and relevant is a never-ending task for teachers. Theory-based tasks can be made into engaging, enjoyable learning experiences by including creativity, imagination, fun, and enjoyment. To pique students’ interest, teachers need to be intense and enthusiastic. They could consider employing humor to increase student participation.
Behavioral issues in the classroom, which harm teachers’ education, students’ learning, and the learning environment as a whole, may be caused by both teachers and students. One of the biggest issues in school is the disruptive behavior of the students. When classmates act inappropriately in class, students and teachers feel burdened. As an intervention method in the classroom, changing the seating arrangements can somewhat minimize the disruptive conduct of the students.
The effectiveness of one’s instruction as well as learning in the class stays firmly in the hands of the student and instructor, who must work together to create a knowledge atmosphere that is inspiring and comprehensive while displaying respect, understanding, and trust. The constructivist viewpoint dominates how classroom management is viewed and applied. However, it is possible to spot classroom management strategies that are reminiscent of behavioral paradigms. The creation and maintenance of successful and encouraging learning communities is the goal of classroom management. As a result, the dominant theoretical perspective includes classroom management.
Baral, P., & Khadka, K. (2021). University teachers’ strategies in dealing with disruptive classroom behaviours in Nepal. Journal of Nelta, 26(1-2), 155-165. Web.
Bozkuş, K. (2021). A systematic review of studies on classroom management from 1980 to 2019. Lnternational Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(4), 433-441. Web.
George, I., Sakirudeen, O., & Sunday, H. (2017). Effective classroom management and students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom state. Research in Pedagogy, 7(2), 43-56. Web.
Nanyele, S., Kuranchie, A., & Owusu-Addo, A. (2018). Classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior. Integrity Journal of Education and Training, 2(2), 6-14. Web.
Şanli, Ö. (2019). An evaluation of the teachers’ classroom management problems. Educational Research and Reviews, 14(8), 282-292. Web.
Wangdi, T., & Namgyel, S. (2022). Classroom to reduce student disruptive behavior: An Action Research. Mextesol Journal. 46(1), 1-11. Web.