The study by Hakanen et al. (2006) identifies and describes two processes connected with the levels of burnout and work engagement in general education teachers. The first process is called energetical, and it centers around job demand that causes increased teacher burnout levels and, therefore, affects teachers’ health. The second process is called motivational, and it involves the impact of job resources on work engagement and affects organizational commitment levels. Burnout-related processes were studied with the help of questionnaires completed by experienced teachers (ten or more years of practice). In general educators, high burnout levels were predicted by job overwork, poor work conditions, and disruptive student behaviors. It was concluded that high teacher burnout rates in European countries were inherent in educators’ negative perceptions of work. Thus, the authors recommend attracting more attention to the positive aspects of teaching such as students’ positive emotions, continuous professional improvement, and influence abilities.
Bin Batal (1999) used five steps to translate the MBI-ES assessment tool into Arabic. Initially, a bilingual person holding a Ph.D. in English literature was asked to translate the inventory from English to Arabic. Then, the text in Arabic was given to a bilingual person with a Ph.D. in special education, and a back translation to English was performed. Having completed the second step, the researcher compared the two versions and mismatches between them to revise the text. As it was found, some minor mismatches were fixed. Within the frame of the next step, a committee approach was utilized, and the research committee of the Department of Special Education at King Saud University was provided with the two versions of MBI-ES and asked to approve the translation. Within the frame of the last step, a field test of the final version of MBI-ES in Arabic was conducted using a sample of 26 teachers. The reliability of the Arabic MBI-ES for different burnout dimensions was 0.77 for emotional exhaustion, 0.76 for depersonalization, and 0.6 for personal accomplishment. According to the test results, the level of reliability was quite high.