The ongoing educational issue associated with developing independence in students remains on the crossroads. Encouraging students being independent not only has significant benefits for them but can also potentially increase the impact of educational approaches and tools, including the facilitation of cost-effective learning. According to the Education Endowment Foundation (2019), independent and self-regulated learning has a crucial influence on pupils’ progress for a low cost. On the contrary, the lack of student independent thinking and decision-making may limit their potential in becoming great thinkers and leaders.
In the current environment, in which educational facilities have encountered a challenge of having to teach students via online means, student independence has come at the forefront. The lack of independence has shown to be associated with a lack of interest or motivation. As a result, learners may see little value in the courses provided to them and their content, they may not believe that the efforts that they put in improve performance, they can be demotivated by the structure and rewards allocation (Education Endowment Foundation, 2019). Therefore, understanding the influence of different approaches on the issue of the lack of students’ independence will reveal the best practices associated with establishing an environment in which learning is a two-way process in which students can rely on their own decisions and skills.
Current Issues in Education
Facilitating increased learner independence is possible through different approaches. However, the traditional methodology that places focus on the teacher rather than the student has been expiring. The aspects influencing the issue that will be explored include curriculum and instruction, technology use, teachers and standards, high stakes assessment, and bilingual or English language learning. The two approaches are self-directed learning and the flipped classroom method, both of which underline the importance of student independence. However, the difference lies in the requirements of preparation, teachers’ roles, and the learning progress.
Aspect 1: Curriculum and Instruction
Both curriculum and instruction could shape the way in which learners develop their sense of independence. Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) is an educational field seeking to carry out appropriate curriculum changes to increase students’ achievement. Beyond research, the area considers the impact of everyday instructional activities implemented in the classroom, ranging from learning technologies to overseeing learning outcomes. The connection between curriculum and instruction and the two approaches is critical to consider because of the possibility to shed light on the methods used to facilitate independence in the learning process.
Approach 1: Self-Directed Learning Approach
Self-directed learning skills are associated with the capability of students to manage their learning assignments and tasks without being directed by others. Such skills are essential for effective life-long learning and represent one of the learning landmarks students should develop on higher levels of educational institutions. Thus, to facilitate learning independence among students, the curriculum and instruction within a course may use a self-directed approach. Such a way of learning may be improved through of scaffolded instructions, for example. Scaffolds represent supporting elements within the curriculum that help learners develop relevant knowledge and skills. This teaching style can be supported with through teachers’ modeling of desired behaviors, offering explanations of relevant concepts with examples and illustrations, inviting students to engage in tasks guided by the instructor, as well as slowly and gradually reducing the support from the instructor to pave the way for the independence in learning.
Approach 2: Flipped Classroom
The flipped classroom approach is concerned with the pedagogical methodology within which direct instructions moves beyond the space of group learning to the context of individual learning. The resulting environment is expected to become a dynamic and multidimensional interactive learning setting in which the instructor guides their students as they apply relevant concepts and creatively engage in the process of learning. Both instruction and curriculum within the flipped classroom approach set the objective of facilitating active learning. Porcaro et al. (2016) mentioned that the curriculum design in a flipped classroom involves several core components, such as the preparation of students, weekly pre-class work, in-class active learning activities and strategies as well as closing the loop of learning by using formative assessments. As the requirements for an effective curriculum grow, teachers are pressured to make more efficient class time use. In such a context, students can spend more time on the practical application of their knowledge and skills rather than on an inactive lecture. The format of lecture materials can change and can be provided through electronic means.
Aspect 2: Technology Use
Technology, specifically, Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT), is an essential issue in multiple educational fields in the twenty-first century. This is because today, technology has developed into the core method for knowledge transfer in the majority of countries. The integration of technologies has gone through different innovations and transformed societies, completely changing the way in which people think, live, and work (Ghavifekr & Rosdy, 2015). Because of this, schools and other educational institutions that are expected to prepare students to live in a society of knowledge have been considering the integration of ICT in their curriculum.
ICT integration in education considers the use of computer-based communication included in the process of daily classroom instruction. While also having to prepare learners for the digital era, teachers are seen as main role models in using ICT in their everyday classrooms, which is related to the capacity of ICT in offering a dynamic and proactive environment. At the same time of using technologies to improve access to quality learning, accessibility, and cost-efficiency of delivering instruction to students, it is also associated with acquiring the benefits from networking and learning communities to face the limitations of the current globalized environment. Even though the process of ICT adoption is not an easy process, it requires ongoing and continuous steps to support the teaching fully and learning information resources. ICT use in education has the potential of facilitating independence among learners because they are encouraged to get closely familiarized with the help of technologies and engaged with the environment.
Approach 1: Self-Directed Learning Approach
Within the self-directed learning approach, technology has shown to support learning, and in the modern climate, no learning occurs completely without its use. Self-direction learning can be improved and amplified through technology use. The idea of learning on one’s own leads educational technologies as a means for differentiating learning, changing the roles of students and teachers within the classroom, as well as the setting of learning, and revolutionizing standardized schooling. The latest developments in twenty-first-century education, including online learning opportunities, changes in pedagogy, and the availability of the Internet on portable devices, have placed extra expectations on learners for taking the initiative in their learning.
With the advent of innovative solutions such as Khan Academy or the Flipped Classroom, self-directed learning at schools has received a new sense of value, and the part of the teacher in the conventional sense has been shifting. With the help of the mentioned approaches, additional time in class is not needed for the direct purpose of the instruction, with the teacher becoming more open and available to address any arising questions and personalize instruction. The available online learning tools facilitate self-directed learning as they engage students in individualized education using a multitude of resources.
Today, as educational facilities have been either opening and closing due to the pandemic, the Online Learning tool has become an essential self-directed process. It allows to expose students to any subjects in which they are interested on their own, and the continuous need for the instruction from teachers is needed. Another example is video-conference tools (PLN), which have become essential facilitators in the context of the current pandemic. They help transform classrooms into free communication centers that allow students and teachers to connect with each other, discuss their lesson topics, and exchange ideas and experience on the matters of their interest. Finally, online tools become important self-assessment mechanisms that facilitate students’ self-directed learning. Rather than relying entirely on teachers to evaluate education progress, students can share their work with peers on review sites or online classrooms to get some feedback. This facilitates learning independence based on the decision-making process that relies on personal opinions and self-development.
Approach 2: Flipped Classroom
At the present time, the flipped classroom method represents a major part of blended learning that encourages significant interest in the education field. Technologies of the flipped classroom imply a unique organization of the educational process in which homework assignments and classroom activities are reversed (Evseeva & Solozhenko, 2015). By using applications and online tools within the flipped classroom context, learners can to control their own process of information acquisition. They may study at their own speed due to the availability and accessibility of all necessary resources within the digital learning environment. Besides, the flipped classroom technology encourages collaborative work among students when they are given group work assignments. In such a context, students are engaged in peer-to-peer assessments, giving each other feedback regarding their work, and rate each other’s success based on the instructor’s criteria.
The impact of technology use in the flipped classroom context also influences the way in which teachers would approach their instruction. The teacher’s job is to facilitate a learning environment with a variety of electronic learning activities in which students would engage and interact with one another. In such an environment, the teacher is an online-learning moderator who would monitor online discussions among students but not lead them. Another crucial issue at play in the flipped classroom technology use is the integrity of the classroom and electronic components of the course, which means that all stages of the learning and teaching process should be connected logically. All assignments that learners have to complete in the course will be checked and assessed in class or the e-learning environment (Evseeva & Solozhenko, 2015).
In the current context of the pandemic, specific examples of useful technologies for flipped classroom implementation should be considered as they can facilitate the increased learning independence among students and update the traditional classroom-based experience. For instance, teachers can use screen and video recorder tools, which allow them to record lecture slides, make on-screen demonstrations, and present material simultaneously through a web camera alongside the supporting visual materials. Such a tool is useful for teachers because they show all the details that students will see in person while also keeping them engaged in learning through eye contact and non-verbal cues. Another tool to be used in a flipped classroom is a secure video library, which teachers can use when incorporating public websites such as YouTube or Google Drive into instructional materials. In such a context, video management technology allows to store and share visual course materials in a private library without risking any of the creative or intellectual rights. Therefore, there are multiple ways of incorporating technologies into the teaching of students according to the flipped classroom method, and teachers have the opportunity to facilitate an open and technologically enhanced environment for an effective flipped classroom;
Aspect 3: Teachers and Standards
The teacher’s role is inspiring, motivating, encouraging, and educating learners of any background and preparation levels. Depending on the approach taken by a teacher and the standards they set, students will have either high or low levels of independence when it comes to learning. In the current environment, teachers’ roles have been redefining, and instruction has been shifting in different directions, extending to the home and the community. Therefore, it is important to discover how the different approaches define the role of teachers and standards when facilitating increased student independence and responsibility in learning.
Approach 1: Self-Directed Learning Approach
Within the process of self-directed learning, teachers are expected to play a crucial role in helping their students make a smooth transition from teacher-directed to self-directed learning. To achieve this, the teacher is expected to assess learners’ readiness for the approach, develop a set of boundaries of students’ decisions about education, and introduce them to the methodology of the process (Iwasiw, 1987). Once students are learning the method, the teacher assumes the role of an assisting party that can teach behaviors that are similar to the traditional methods. However, more responsibility is vested in students rather than instructors. Essential components of the teacher’s role include the ongoing maintenance of educational standards, being available to students to answer any questions and solve issues, as well as teach about evaluation and objective-writing.
Through designing a significant body of materials that are relevant to the needs of students and knowing about the variety of teaching models, teachers may get learners involved in adapted in learning (Agustiani, 2019). When doing so, the roles of teachers will vary depending on students’ needs, such as monitoring the learning progress, motivating and organizing the process, controlling behaviors, providing adequate models of language use, being a friend and a counselor, as well as a needs analyst, evaluator, and material developer (Agustiani, 2019). Within these roles, teachers are expected to encourage students assume a more responsibility in their own successful learning, giving the motivation to develop the strategies of executive control, specifically the metacognitive strategies that facilitate the process of learning. Therefore, within the self-directed learning approach, the burden of successful learning cannot be placed on the teacher entirely as students get more significant and decision-based learning. The integration of teacher-learner awareness within the self-directed learning framework is essential because it can increase the learners’ awareness toward their roles in the learning context, and teaching as it can be effectively shaped for generating independent and self-directed learners.
Overall, the responsibility facilitates learning within the self-directed approach shifts from the external source, such as the teacher or instructional material, to the individual. Learners’ active involvement and control are crucial in the educational context. Students are the ones to assume the responsibility for their education within self-directed learning by establishing goals for themselves, tracking their own progress, being autonomous and open to learning, and curious, as well as take the initiative to learn and acquire new information and skills (Tekkol & Demirel, 2018). For students to become autonomous, teachers must work on improving instructional environments related to improving students’ self-control skills, and such settings may incorporate reflective journals, evaluation scales for learning performance, as well as cognitive and upper-cognitive learning strategies. Besides, learners’ independence is expected to increase when the instruction makes more space in the educational setting for activities that facilitate the development of creative thinking skills, beginning from elementary school. Incorporating such activities has the potential of helping to improve education performance at higher education facilities. To achieve the desired levels of self-directed learning among students, it is needed for learners to define their own needs in learning, and their opinions should be taken into account when it comes to defining learning objectives. Finally, unique learning experiences that will improve individuals self-directed learning competencies should be embedded in the instruction to help students become life-long learners.
Approach 2: Flipped Classroom
An essential feature of the flipped classroom is the increased emphasis on the shift from the responsibility of an instructor for learning to the increased responsibility of students. In the model, students are generally expected to be more active in the learning process, such as following through on the viewing of lecture materials and engaging during class through different means. As reported by Arnold-Garza (2014), a notable example of the changing instructor’s role in the flipped classroom is a researcher-instructor preparing students that would move on a project-focused section of their curriculum, thus having to direct their own learning in the near future. The researcher specifically flipped his classroom to aid students be responsible for their own learning.
The degree of autonomy that learners receive is directly associated with increasing their levels of independence. Such independence means that the learning diversity of students can be supported and celebrated. With the aid of asynchronous access to lecture materials in different formats, students that need more time to review and process information can do it at their own pace. Besides, by varying the examples within lecture content from those activities occurring in class, instructors can transfer learning to new situations, thus facilitating diversity (Arnold-Garza, 2014). In a class setting, learning differences will also be supported by teachers as students can reflect on the new materials by asking questions, reflecting, and discussing topics at hand. The collaborative peer work to solve problems based on lesson content is also welcomed, and students can either demonstrate or argue their own opinions and solutions to their classmates and the teacher. Such interactions help students fill each other’s gaps in knowledge and facilitate an open and honest conversation about the subjects discussed in class.
Aspect 4: High Stakes Assessments
High-stakes assessments are formal tests used for making crucial decisions about educators, students, schools, or districts, predominantly for accountability purposes. In general, high stakes mean that the scores attained in the tests are used to determine actions to be implemented in response to the assessment findings. For example, subsequent steps may include sanctions and penalties, funding reductions, awards or positive publicity, grade promotion or graduation, as well as salary increases and bonuses for personnel. High-stakes assessments have shown to influence students’ learning environments. They aim to hold educational facilities accountable, ensure equity between districts and among different student groups, and provide crucial services to students with special education needs. The issue behind high-stakes assessment is that their impact has been subjected to controversy, as no single assessment should ever be the main factor in making educational decisions about a school, a student, or an educator (Ritt, 2016). As a result of such assessments, teachers may lose power in their classrooms or be punished for unsatisfactory test scores. Besides, concerns regarding students’ independence and autonomy in learning arise because of the increased pressure to perform well on tests.
Approach 1: Self-Directed Learning Approach
The self-directed learning approach goes against high-stakes assessments principles because they align all teachers and all students under the same expectation of standards. Because of such intense pressure, educational facilities may resort to excessive test preparing, cheating, and changing test scores to ensure that they meet the required standards. Thus, learning independence that is encouraged in the self-directed approach cannot be fully facilitated in the context that is overly focused on the preparation of learners for high-stakes assessments.
In contrast, self-directed learning is evaluated in terms of readiness and overall progress in terms of students’ needs and abilities, and such evaluations have been predominantly adjusted to each environment and its learners. For instance, the self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) establishes eight dimensions that show whether learners are ready to engage in self-directed learning (Cadorin, Bressan, & Palese, 2017). Such dimensions range from one’s self-concept as an effective learner to problem-solving skills, and the outcome of the assessment does not offer grounds to identify punishments or rewards as in the case with high-stake tools. Thus, even though high-stake assessments remain the predominant way of measuring accomplishment at educational facilities, the self-directed learning approach goes against standard-based testing principles, which raises concerns regarding addressing the problem of learners’ independence and their subsequent self-directed acquisition of skills and knowledge.
Approach 2: Flipped Classroom
Because the flipped classroom approach to learning greatly changes teachers and students’ roles, aligning the method with high-stakes assessments is challenging, and low-stakes assessments fit the approach better. Low-stakes assessments are evaluation methods that do not significantly influence the final grades of students or other educational outcomes. Their purpose is to offer learners an indication of their progress when taking a class and provide the opportunity of improving their overall performance before getting a final grade.
To facilitate learning independence and increase the level of responsibility that students take for their own learning, it is suggested to introduce low-stakes assignments and assessments compared to the high-stakes methodology. It will allow giving students a realistic idea about their performance as soon as possible, thus enabling them to look for appropriate supporting resources as needed. In addition, low-stakes assessments are expected to open up a communication line between students and their teachers, increasing learners’ willingness to ask for help when needed. Within the framework, both learnerss and teachers are active participators of the educational process and consistently engage in the evaluation of the learning process.
As suggested by Cole and Osterlind (2008), the pressure on educational institutions to objectively implement student learning outcomes presents significant challenges to the process of assessment as well as the decision-making based on assessment outcomes. The issue to motivate students to give their best effort in learning is possible through lower-stakes reviews as opposed to high-stakes assessments because the method entails few to no individual negative implications (Cole and Osterlind, 2008).
Aspect 5: Bilingual or English Language Learners
Bilingual education refers to the teaching process in two languages, a native and a second language. Instructional programs used in for such learners have been emphasizing the importance of helping students transition from their native tongue to English. The main objective of bilingual education is to enable students to acquire “grade-level academic skills in their own language until they have enough sills to achieve academically in English” (Capan, 2012, p. 250). English language learners (ELLs) are students who cannot yet communicate in English fluently or learn in the language effectively as they come from non-English speaking homes and backgrounds. Despite the challenges associated with bilingual and EL learning, there are also benefits to consider. For instance, such factors as cultural background, cognitive advantage, and future career opportunities related to being bilingual, place individuals speaking several languages in a beneficial position. However, it is necessary to note that independence could be an issue for ELLs as in the absence of guidance, they can lack the necessary linguistic skills to manage their own learning.
Approach 1: Self-Directed Learning Approach
There is a variety of methods that students can use independently to improve their language acquisition outcomes (Parisi, 2020). Self-directed strategies to facilitate individualized learning may include communicating in a target language (TL) with friends, relatives, and others, watching television and online content in the TL, listening to radio shows, podcasts, and music, as well as reading in the TL. All of the mentioned methods of improving learning outcomes are concerned with encouraging ELLs to be more proactive in understanding their own limitations and needs when it comes to new language acquisition, thus choosing the methods that would fit their objectives the most.
An example of a self-directed method that ELLs can use is service-learning, which is a model of instruction that involves students using directly the skills they aim to acquire in a real-world context, which could also benefit the community at large. The main component of service-learning is the students’ self-reflection on the service and how it correlated to their curriculum. Due to the increased emphasis on reflection involved in the model, it is highly likely to improve learners’ independence and understand how they should approach the learning process. As revealed by Askildson, Kelly, and Mick (2013) in their research at the University of Notre Dame, the learner outcomes within the service-learning model were three times higher compared to others. Within the program, hours spent in the classroom were reduced to three days a week, while students spent two days a week doing community service. In such a way, ELLs were engaged with native speakers in real-life situations within a meaningful and socially beneficial context (Askildson et al., 2013). Approaching self-directed learning gives students a real opportunity to engage in an active communication environment. The act of volunteering a native English-speaking community captures six of the nineteen self-directed learning practices put forth by Grover et al. (2014). This illustrates that at least some portion of self-directed learning practices have a real influence on bilingual and English language learners’ learning outcomes.
Approach 2: Flipped Classroom
The flipped classroom methodology within the ELL context may integrate both online and face-to-face learning experiences to meet the needs of learners (Santikarn & Wichadee, 2018). The most notable benefit of flipped classrooms was the improvement of the process of ELL associcated with the teacher assuming the role of a coach to their studying of language. Therefore, ELL could be implemented in the flipped classroom context. While in mainstream education, teachers will lecture their learners at a specific topic, an English language teacher will provide students with the TL presented in a clear context, such as the text format. Such texts as instructional materials can be used outside the classroom, explored and read at home, and prepared for a lesson. Besides, a teacher in EL learning may opt for the approach of creating videos with a lot of examples and language explanations.
As aligned with English language learning, the flipped classroom has been closely interconnected with the extended use of technologies and experimentation with a different form of instruction. In their study, Hsieh et al. (2011) used a mobile instant messaging tool “Line” to develop a flipped learning methodology to help ELLs learn idioms employing both written and oral interaction. In their research, a control group received traditional language instruction while the experimental group was studying under the flipped learning experience to improve the idiomatic expression use and achieve the set goals for the instructional process. The research findings suggested that the flipped classroom approach showed better results compared to traditional instruction, enabling English language learners to improve their knowledge and comprehension of English idioms and their subsequent use in conversations.
Assumptions & Quality of Evidence
Considering the findings of the analysis, the primary assumption is that the adjustable and student-oriented instruction is the one to facilitate learner independence most likely. Shifting the emphasis from the teacher’s overarching role to provide information and guide the lesson to underlining students’ needs and their self-reflection on the learning process is a fundamental component of the approaches. A personalized learning approach is needed to facilitate learners’ independence as a student should be prepared for real-time situations and their future learning in higher educational institutions.
The quality of evidence reliance on the relevance, reputability, and the expertise of the researchers working on them. The majority the evidence provided in the paper was taken from articles published in reputable peer-reviewed journals such as The Journal of General Education, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Journal of Adult Education, Journal of Science Education and Technology, Frontiers in Psychology, International Journal of Research in Education, and many others. The relevance of the articles is on a moderate level since some of them were published later than five years ago; however, considering the limited availability of sources on the narrow topic, they should be regarded as applicable to this study. There are several sources taken from Master’s papers and theses, awaiting peer review. Although, the quality of evidence presented in them is high as they included peer-reviewed journals and government publications.
Connections Between Aspects and Approaches
The two aspects that have shown to influence the levels of students’ independence significantly include technology use and the role of teachers and instruction. Students are encouraged to investigate topics that they would like to study within the self-directed learning approach, often using methods, tools, and information resources that they have selected for themselves (Leonard, 2020). In such a learning environment, teachers act as guides and facilitators of the process, they are open to help students adjust to the new approach and help solve any issues that may arise. When it comes to using technologies, self-directed learning implies using any solutions and tools that will potentially help learners enhance their knowledge and skill acquisition. Any technologies that may address learners’ needs can be used, which makes the approach adjustable and individualized.
The interplay between technologies and teachers is stronger in a flipped classroom approach because of the significant reliance of instructor on technologies within the model in which students encounter new knowledge. Before attending the classroom, teachers provide students with online lecture materials in the form of presentations or videos (Brame, 2016). The class time is also supported by the extensive use of technologies for the purpose of discussions, problem-solving, and other types of active learning that will help students actualize and assimilate new knowledge. In flipped classrooms, teachers are not expected to give direct instructors to students, with their role shifting to being a facilitator of knowledge, homework instruction, as well as providing a positive and welcoming space in which students can explore their learning. Teachers’ roles are supported by technology use allows to organize and manage class time. As online and computer-based solutions come at the forefront, teachers become the active observers of students and have more time to spend with each student and address their learning concerns.
Pros and Cons of the Approaches
Approach 1. Self-directed learning is advantageous for promoting students’ freedom of expression while also teaching learners that they can acquire new information and skills not under pressure but with enjoyment. The freedom of expression is developed when students learn how they can find their personal direction in learning without the need for strictly following a curriculum. The absence of pressure to learn allows students to pursue their genuine interest and embrace learning as an individualized concept. However, the approach is limited by the instructor’s significant withdrawal from the learning process and the heavy reliance on technologies, which enables inequality among learners.
Approach 2. The flipped classroom method has been praised due to the its intention of enhancing student learning and achievement by completely changing the traditional classroom model and focusing most of the class time on understanding student needs instead of the lecture. The specific benefits of the model include allowing more control to students, promoting collaboration, and making the content of lessons more accessible (Cevikbas & Kaiser, 2020). Giving more control to students is beneficial for giving learners the freedom to learn at their own speed while promoting collaboration encourages students to talk to each other and discover concepts as a group. Also, as lecture content is available freely, students can catch up quickly if necessary. As to the limitations of the approach, it relies heavily on trust and class preparation, and there is a potential of creating a significant digital divide. Students’ need access a computer and the Internet is a challenge for students in low-income districts with limited resource access. Also, there is no way of guaranteeing that students will do their work diligently within the flipped model approach, which is based on independent student participation at home.
Solutions, Potential Criticism & the Future of Education
Considering the research on the two approaches and their impact on the influencing factors that can shape students’ ability to be independent in learning, it is recommended to implement the flipped classroom solution. The methodology has shown to positively influence the levels of students’ independence in an effectively developed instruction and the extensive support from instructors who assume the part of guides in the learning process. In the pandemic context, the lesson format has been shifting to the online setting, allowing for the sufficient implementation of the flipped classroom provided if all students can access to the required technologies (Cevikbas & Kaiser, 2020). Within the approach, teachers act as facilitators of the process of learning while students are awarded more freedom to develop independence and self-reflection skills.
The potential criticism of the solution will be associated with the limited possibility to ensure that students will adhere to the flipped classroom approach until they attend a class. If students are not motivated to prepare for a lesson independently, their success in attaining the studied concepts and skills will be limited (Hossain, 2015). In addition, challenges arise regarding the evaluation of students’ progress and knowledge attainment since high-stakes assessments have shown to impose the unnecessary level of pressure. In addition, for students who got used to the traditional teaching approach, the rapid change to a flipped classroom solution will be challenging, especially for learners from backgrounds with limited resources.
Considering the current environment and the changing format of education, flipped learning has the potential of being a beneficial learning approach when helping students develop independence and responsibility for their own learning. The flexible environments and the new learning culture introduced in flipped classrooms allow rearranging learning spaces to fit each learning unit’s needs and objectives and assign tasks of different format. The method’s adjustability is crucial to the future of education. The subsequent increase of learners’ independence can allow shape the standards for students’ progress and assessments. The learning culture inherent to the flipped model is unique due to the learner-centered approach, with the potential of having greater depth and creating rich experiences within the knowledge construction context.
Today, as educational facilities have encountered a challenge of having to teach students via online means, the problem of increasing student independence has come at the forefront. By implementing the flipped classroom, there is a capacity to positively influence the levels of students’ independence in an effectively developed instruction and the extensive support from instructors who take the role of guides in the learning process. The approach showed effectiveness in multiple influencing aspects, ranging from English language learning to technology use in the educational context, and the future of modern education should incorporate the flipped classroom methodology.
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