Active learning involves using a system of methods and techniques, aimed primarily not at the transfer of ready-made knowledge, memorization, and reproduction. Effective pedagogy methods assume that the teacher has high hopes for all learners and passes most of the education process to the classman. Effective learning encourages students to study, allowing them to manage the process independently. Dynamic knowledge is impossible without the active involvement of students in the education process. That is why a mentor must use different discussion techniques to obtain feedback from participants, enhance their mental activity, increase interest in learning, and develop independence.
Teaching strategies that aim to focus on the active learning process
Active education involves students through learning activities such as reading, writing, discussing, or problem-solving that contribute to the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of material. Functional training in the classroom also provides pupils with informal opportunities for feedback on how well they have understood the material. The researched methods that support implementing active learning are mutual questioning, a pause procedure, a three-step interview, and recording the most complex information (Matsushita, 2018). There are also significant opportunities to defend the opposite point of view and allow students to conduct a lesson.
Thus, mutual questioning or open dialogue is critical as students try to ask important questions and seek answers. This process lets students express themselves freely and not be afraid of criticism. In other words, it is the discussion of the topic in the lesson in an accessible format that permits students to memorize information. Also, the method can be effective in preparing for an important exam. The procedure of pauses discussed in advance with students is necessary to improve the understanding of the material already study and ready for new information. The break should be a few minutes, but this will enable learners to review a fundamental matter or summarize it before analyzing another topic. Moreover, a system is essential in explaining difficult-to-understand material.
The three-step interview system teaches students to work in a team exceptionally successfully. Also, pronouncing a particular issue in an interview format will permit learners to remember new information.This teaching approach is creative because children themselves interpret the information and pass it on to teammates in a simple way. Recording the most complex information allows the tutor to assess students’ level of knowledge and explain incomprehensible material (Matsushita, 2018). This method can be a way to control knowledge because diligent learners need an explanation of additional material and students who find it difficult to learn the task need to repeat the material already covered.
The practice of defending the opposite point of view is aimed at the argumentation of the position and critical thinking. The tutor must choose a problem in practice, describe the brief information, and then divide the students into pairs. One of the pupils should support the position of the mentor, and the other – to present opposing arguments. The principal thing is to explain that there is no right point of view in advance. This non-standard way of presenting knowledge will allow students to remember the topic and analyze all possible interpretations. Finally, giving learners the chance to give lectures to classmates will increase students’ attention to the material presented (Matsushita, 2018). This method will let the tutee practice the skills of presenting information and understand the importance of the teacher’s work.
Utilizing cognitive activators prepares the student to learn independently
Students who participate in the development and discussion of curriculum issues are much more interested in achieving a positive result. In the case of studying a foreign language, independent pupils can recognize their learning needs and current level of knowledge. Accordingly, they will seek information about learning and will try to develop language skills on their own. In order to stimulate students to study individually, it is necessary to show the benefits and possible results. Therefore, an effective method is establishing learning goals with learners (Tharayil, et al., 2018). A discussion is needed to understand what learners want and what aspects they need to improve on.
Based on the plans, it is important to determine the priorities of each student depending on his requirements. This division will let each pupil perform specific segments of tasks that will improve their weaknesses. The next step is a detailed plan of how to achieve the goals. When students receive a set of assignments and criteria for their evaluation for the entire semester, they will be able to assess the possibility of realizing purposes. Learners will also be interested in fast and high-quality courses when they see the amount of already studied materials. In order to strengthen students’ confidence and motivation, it is important to prepare a critical assessment of learning outcomes. Moreover, this approach will empower students to understand gaps in knowledge and try to overcome them (Tharayil, et al., 2018). For the same purpose, mentors need to write a response to each learner. It should contain positive achievements and criticism that will permit trainees to become independent.
In addition, students’ evaluation of each other’s progress is critical because everyone will try to show the best result of the plan. Finally, the primary cognitive activator is the transfer of decisions into the hands of classmates. To achieve independence, students need to learn to make decisions individually (Matsushita, 2018). The teacher must instruct learners to make simple choices, increasing the responsibility for decisions made over time.
Regular obstacles and barriers that give rise to faculty resistance
However, it is complicated for tutors to establish an active learning process. The mentor needs to manage and change education strategies in the innovation classroom constantly. Activities can create several distractions such as loud conversations in small groups, sound from other students’ laptops, changing projections on each group’s video screens, blackboard actions, and the constant movement of teachers.The tutor needs to consciously direct students’ attention during the lesson to critical points. Before the exercise, the lecturer should prepare instructions for the planned activities. They should consider developing key guidance and repeating them clearly to ensure that all groups of learners complete the tasks (Finelli, et al., 2018). Therefore, innovative learning requires a lot of attention and time from the teacher. Also, there is a problem that students do not always want to listen to the tutor’s new instructions.
Active learning is impossible without the active involvement of students in the learning process. Effective learning involves using a system of methods aimed mainly not at the presentation of ready-made knowledge and its reproduction but the independent acquisition of knowledge by pupils in the process of progressive cognitive activity. Also, to develop students’ confidence and the ability to learn independently, it is necessary to involve them in curriculum development and discuss progress. Teachers need also be prepared for the flexibility of new teaching techniques to ensure the effectiveness of results. Therefore, active learning requires a lot of attention to strategy development but, at the same time, in the long run, justifies all efforts.
Finelli, J., Nguyen, K., Demonbrun, M., Borrego, M., Prince, M., Husman, J., Henderson, C., Shekhar, P., & Waters, C. (2018). Reducing student resistance to active learning: Strategies for instructors. Journal of College Science Teaching, 47(5), 80–91.
Matsushita K. (2018). An Invitation to Deep Active Learning. In K. Matsushita (Eds.), Deep Active Learning (pp. 15-33). Springer.
Tharayil, S., Borrego, M., & Prince, M. (2018). Strategies to mitigate student resistance to active learning. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(7), 2–16. Web.