The Literacy Concept in Australia


Literacy is the ability to communicate through engraved, written, or computerized representations. The article reviews the Victorian program, which defines what pupils should learn and is structured as a learning progression (Brown & Whittle, 2021). The curriculum was provided in a scope and sequence chart to aid teachers in visualizing the process and developing teaching and learning programs that address students’ various requirements (Brown & Whittle, 2021). The report applies formal literacy examinations, which often entail the use of regulated activities that require the evaluation to be administered and scored uniformly for all learners. Formal assessments are critical because they reduce inspector subjectivity by rating students’ competence using a consistent scoring scale. Moreover, the paper uses summative evaluations to determine whether students have attained the desired degree of ability or educational target (Bhat & Bhat, 2019). Summative measurement is significant because it gives cumulative pictures for evaluating and reporting on learning outcomes.


Definition of the Concept of Literacy

There is no definite cause of literacy, as it is a living entity that evolves and transforms in response to the demands and behaviors of particular individuals. According to Vasquez et al. (2019), literacy refers to the ability, conviction, and willingness to utilize language. Literacy encompasses a variety of methods of interaction, encompassing music, motion, dance, narration, creative arts, journalism, and theatre, in addition to verbal, nonverbal, and visual interaction, as well as speaking, attending, seeing, reading, and writing (Vasquez et al., 2019). Technological and print-based technologies are used to create modern literature.

The competence to critically evaluate texts is an integral ingredient of literacy in an expanding technology society. On the other hand, Novakova and Siepmann (2020) insinuated that a person is functionally literate when they can engage in all the tasks that require comprehension for the institution’s and community’s efficient operation. They further suggest that when individuals continue to use interpretation, writing, and computation for their own and society’s advancement, they are literate. This concept is unique and intriguing because it emphasizes the importance of literacy from the perspective of the person’s neighborhood.

Literacy is frequently defined as sociocultural concepts of proficiency, as the activities and competencies related to being literate. Critical language specialists emphasize the relationship between education and control. Weiland (2017) viewed literacy as a revolutionary praxis force that commences with learning how to read the written word and the universe and then progresses to those who can write both the written word and the globe, thereby altering their realities through the strength of knowledge. Since society’s aims are a site of competition for a diversity of points of view, knowledge for critical engagement must include evaluating and examining the ideologies and institutions that perpetuate inequalities.

Impacts of Literacy Teachings on Australian Children’s Learning and Development

Early childhood education and training are critical to children’s wellness and have a long-term influence on their job chances, engagement, and relationship with the larger community. School is the primary effect on a child’s linguistic and cognitive formation during the early years for most youngsters. Regular reading with youngsters improves brain growth and promotes teacher-child bonding during this period. As a result, this encourages the development of speech, comprehension, and social-emotional abilities. Literacy instruction is critical for children in Australia to acquire a strong feeling of self-worth and patriotism. Children with good reading abilities perform better in school and have a more positive self-image, and they develop into active learners and in-demand professions.

Children’s future reading effectiveness must have a strong background in early literacy abilities. Flint et al. (2019) report that adolescents who cannot read fluently by fourth grade are four times more likely to quit school in Australia. Flint et al. (2019) also acknowledged that fourth grade in Australia is critical for learners to shift from reading comprehension to reading to understanding. Those children who are not reading at or above grade level by this point are at risk of falling further and further behind as disciplines such as mathematics and science become more fundamental to education (Flint et al., 2019). Furthermore, literacy development is a continuous procedure that takes time.

Early literacy growth in Australia happens throughout a child’s first three years of life and serves as a foundation for later communicative competence, reading, composing, and overall learning. If a child cannot interpret, they cannot gain knowledge, and for a child to pursue subjects such as math and science, they must first be able to comprehend information (Flint et al., 2019). Flint et al. (2019) noted that students struggling with reading throughout elementary are inclined to become highly agitated when they cannot grasp basic methodologies, resulting in a loss of self-confidence and interest and further falling behind their colleagues. As a result, early introduction to rich literacy activities aids youngsters in understanding the world and the people in it. Flint et al. (2019) suggested that the genres of literature children read may affect how they interact with others. Reading fictional concepts helps youngsters grasp what others are feeling and experiencing. Being more compassionate fosters a more calm atmosphere and teaches youngsters that each individual’s experiences, opinions, and sentiments are unique, promoting a kind and welcoming character and perspective on life.

Key Benefits of Chosen Assessments

When a summative assessment is conducted at the educational institution level, it occurs when learning outcomes are reviewed and, most frequently, at the conclusion of the course. As a result, this evaluation style focuses on quantitative and more realistic sampling procedures (Kibble, 2017). They are connected with the transparency appraisal components. Thus, summative performance appraisal employs theoretical and practical methodologies to acquire a broader comprehension of learners’ literacy proficiency. As a result, instructors better understand why and what transpired during the instructional process (Kibble, 2017). By utilizing qualitative data collection techniques, unexpected repercussions and areas for development are constantly visible.

Additionally, school heads might assess the academic staff or educator using summative assessment. This examination can determine the degree of effectiveness of all professional trainers satisfying the school’s requirement for teacher accountability. The evaluation is conducted using a form that includes a checklist and a few brief narratives. Competency, classroom atmosphere, organization, curriculum, and preparation are evaluated (Kibble, 2017). Finally, summative assessments are regarded tools since they can evaluate the effectiveness of any educational activity in the context of school or institution improvement. They aid in syllabus alignment and assist students in being placed in the right programs (Kibble, 2017). They are highly beneficial since they provide a wealth of knowledge at the classroom level.

Formal tests are methodical, data-driven tests that are designed to determine what and how well pupils have learned. Learners can access and practice for these examinations in advance, and they provide administrators with a methodical measure to gauge students’ understanding and development (Black & Wiliam, 2018). Formal evaluations assess pupils’ competency or knowledge of a discipline and compare them to predefined standards. Moreover, formal assessment gives teachers information about their learners’ knowledge and competence concerning needed instructional objectives (Black & Wiliam, 2018). They are quantifiable since they should demonstrate a student’s comprehension of the compulsory subject. Finally, formal measurements are widely considered reliable since they consistently yield consistent findings across schools and throughout time (Black & Wiliam, 2018). They allow sufficient time for the student to complete the assignment and communicate their ideas. These tests are exhaustive and cover every subject discussed in class.

Factors contributing to the Use of the Assessments

First, an examination should be realistic to focus on real-world implications. For instance, a literacy test that measures only understanding ability is less efficient than one that includes story problems or other opportunities to link the competence outside the evaluation context. It is one thing for pupils to retain a statement or response; it is another way to absorb the subject and apply it later in life. Summative and formal testing represents the purposes taught during a specific time as precisely as feasible, as instructors already know the instructional outcomes before teaching a given topic.

Second, while validating teaching programs does not preclude meaningful student-led dialogues, educators should focus exclusively on the targeted objectives. It is unjust to evaluate students on material that was not covered during a particular teaching episode; thus, the two assessment approaches take into account all domains covered during classroom teaching. Finally, variation enables students to express their understanding uniquely, and administering a one-dimensional test might negatively affect particular students. Both summative and formal assessments incorporate dimensions of intellectual, psychomotor, and social competencies. These include group work, work showcases, journal articles, and scheduled pencil-to-paper examinations.

Potential Effects of the Assessments in Relation to Children’s Learning and Development

To be distortion-free, an examination must be created to represent the entirety of the subject covered, including how the material was taught. Additionally, uniformity is required between tasks and their marking, both domestically inside the evaluation and publicly across multiple variations. Scale reliability issues cast doubt on the summative assessment’s purpose to quantify literacy achievement precisely. Standardized tests with limited modes of representation, especially large-scale summative tests that rely on multiple-choice for computer grading, may demotivate Children. These learners include non-native individuals who face cultural and language impediments in comprehending questions, pupils with a learning disability, and students who perform poorly under pressure (Underwood, 2020). External formal and summative assessment of children’s literacy exams used to evaluate the instructor and school effectiveness can negatively affect what transpires in the classroom. Therefore, teachers frequently feel tremendous stress, explicitly teaching the examination at the sacrifice of other literacy targets and strategies when they believe their employment is in jeopardy.

Recommendations for Policies and Teaching Practices

Policies that encourage comprehensive training improvement should be developed for children who are not making the required progress in their literacy development. Funding should be made accessible to provide more effective instruction, concentrated time, tutoring by experienced and competent tutors, or other forms of individualized assistance. These pedagogical tactics are employed to expedite students’ learning rather than grade repetition or social promotion, which have been shown to have little influence on children’s accomplishments. Additionally, effective evaluation procedures that aid in the growth and development of kids should be implemented in Australian schools.

Teachers must consistently and accurately analyze and evaluate children’s advancement in writing and reading improvement, organize and acclimate teaching, and engage with guardians. Test performance exams in reading and writing abilities presented in groups must not be used before third grade, ideally not even before fourth grade. The younger the child, the more challenging it is to get meaningful and reliable measures of their growth and learning through single-test presentations (Castles et al., 2018). Finally, the Australian policy should develop a complete, consistent career planning framework and professionalism for instructors. This form of professional preparedness program ascertains that preschool and primary school personnel receive customized, college-level education that notifies them about behavioral patterns in early literacy memorization.


Literacy is the capacity to communicate by engraved, written, or digital symbols. A person is functionally literate when they can do all duties that require comprehension for the institution or community to operate efficiently. When a summative evaluation is used at the educational institution level, it occurs throughout the review of learning outcomes and, most typically, at the course’s conclusion. As a result, this evaluation approach is more quantitative and employs more realistic sample methodologies. They are associated with the components of the transparency appraisal process. Thus, summative performance appraisal uses theoretical and practical techniques to better understand students’ literacy proficiency. External formal and summative evaluations of children’s literacy exams used to measure the instructor’s and school’s effectiveness might negatively affect what occurs in the classroom. As a result, instructors frequently experience extreme stress, explicitly teaching the examination at the expense of other literacy aims and practices when their employment is threatened.


Bhat, B. A., & Bhat, G. J. (2019). Formative and summative evaluation techniques for improvement of learning process. European Journal of Business & Social Sciences, 7(5), 776-785.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2018). Classroom assessment and pedagogy. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(6), 551-575.

Brown, T. D., & Whittle, R. J. (2021). Physical literacy: A sixth proposition in the Australian/Victorian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education? Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, 12(2), 180-196.

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Flint, A. S., Kitson, L., Lowe, K., Shaw, K., Humphrey, S., Vicars, M., Rogers, J. & Ware, S. (2019). Literacy in Australia: Pedagogies for engagement. John Wiley & Sons.

Kibble, J. D. (2017). Best practices in summative assessment. Advances in Physiology Education, 41(1), 110-119.

Novakova, I., & Siepmann, D. (2020). Literary style, corpus stylistic, and lexico-grammatical narrative patterns: Toward the concept of literary motifs. In Phraseology and Style in Subgenres of the Novel (pp. 1-15). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Underwood, K. (2020). A curriculum for students with additional needs. In Understanding Students with Additional Needs as Learners (pp. 209-216). Springer, Cham.

Vasquez, V. M., Janks, H., & Comber, B. (2019). Critical literacy as a way of being and doing. Language Arts, 96(5), 300-311.

Weiland, T. (2017). Problematizing statistical literacy: An intersection of critical and statistical literacies. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 96(1), 33-47.

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